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Corona Beer

Corona Beer
Strategic Management ??“ BUS 599Corona Beer
Identify and discuss the trends in the global beer markets.
Brewing has historically been a local industry with only a few companies having a substantial international presence. However, the last couple of decades have seen increasing consolidation within the industry. Back in 2003, sales totaled 1,484 million hectoliters. The main impetus for growth came from increased consumption in developing countries, especially China. In more established beer markets, volume growth was slow due to increasing saturation. Also, lifestyle trends are encouraging a broad shift away from beers, as health consciousness increases and encourage consumers to cut down on heavy drinking. Fashion trends towards alternative drinks, such as wine, FABs and bottled water, have also constrained growth in beer sales. Furthermore, stricter drink-driving legislation is deterring consumers from drinking away from home. Global beer volumes are primarily being driven by growing disposable income, improvements in the quality of beer, marketing and advertising activities, and a steadily growing beer-consuming population base. An ongoing trend evident in emerging and growth markets is the substitution of beer in place of traditional, local spirits. This trend is driven by rising incomes and increasing responsiveness towards brands and marketing. In addition, demographic shifts towards urbanization and increasing westernization of tastes among younger generations have supported the shift towards beer. In mature markets, consumption rates vary based on product differentiation, and marketing and promotional activities.
Beer consumption is also affected by a range of other factors, including seasonality, weather, demographics, tax and duties, perceived health effects, responsible-use programmers, rules and regulations and the consumption of substitute products.
While the dominant trend in the beer market between 1998 and 2003 was one of premiumisation, “light” beers gained momentum during 2002/2003, as manufacturers began to target health conscious consumers. Such activity was particularly pronounced in the US, where four of the five top-selling beer brands were light lagers in 2003. Another trend over the last 10 years has been of global consolidation. The top 10 brewers accounted for 34% of the global beer market in 1998. In 2008, this figure had grown to 59%. In 2008, two major acquisitions took place in the global brewing industry: The acquisition of Scottish & Newcastle by Carlsberg and Heineken and the acquisition of Anheuser-Busch by InBev (Management Review: Markets and Strategy, 2009).
Discuss how Modelo??™s international expansion was made possible through strategic partnerships with experienced distributors in local markets.
Corona??™s ascent to stardom could be attributed to its brilliant and unique marketing campaign which was a direct result of the international strategy undertaken by Grupo Modelo when it expanded into the United States. While continuing to produce the beer domestically, Modelo entered into distribution contracts with companies that had local knowledge of the market and gave them autonomy to market the product fittingly, yet maintained an active involvement in the decision making. The result was the rise of Corona from a beer sold primarily in the states bordering Mexico, to the number one imported beer in America. When Corona first entered the American beer market, it choose Chicago-based Barton Beers Ltd. as its distributor. Barton Beers was an easy choice because it was the largest beer importer in the 25 western states and was experienced in the marketing and sales of imported, premium beers. It was through Barton that the marketing image of ???fun in the sun??? was born. In 1986, Modelo decided to select a second distributor, Gambrinus Inc., which was headed by a former Modelo executive. Each marketing company was responsible for its own 25 states.
Modelo??™s agreement with its distributors was that each importer would be responsible for essentially all activities involving the sale of the beer, except its production, which took place in Modelo factories in Mexico. Everything??”including transportation of the beer, insurance, custom clearance, pricing strategy, and creativity of the advertising campaigns??”was the importers??™ responsibility. However, Modelo had the final say on anything involving the brand image of its beers (Som, 2008, p. C252).
Identify and discuss the next foreign market that Modelo should enter and discuss the strategy it should use to enter the market.
The next foreign market that Modelo should enter is in Australia. Currently, Australia is ranked fourth internationally in per capita beer consumption, at around 110 litres per year. Australias beer market is among the most profitable in the world, generating earnings of $1 billion a year, shared largely between Fosters and Lion Nathan. Australia has only two types of beers being produced, lager and light beer. With exception of the family owned Coopers Brewery, all of the large Australian breweries are owned by either the Foster??™s Group or Lion Nathan. Victoria Bitter is Australia??™s highest market share of all beer sold in Australia, and has been for the last 20 years.
The strategy Modelo should use to enter this market is their ingenious marketing philosophy. These strategies consist of giving autonomous control to an experienced, local distributor, focused on ???fun in the sun???. They should partner with Coopers Brewery. Corona beer is a pale lager that has a smooth texture with a tanginess added by a lime wedge which is conducive to Australia??™s climate. With a lack of variety to choose from in Australia, makes Corona a perfect beer to try something new (Wikipedia, 2011).
Discuss the challenges that Modelo faces from its competitor InBev, and how it might respond strategically to the industry giant.
Modelo is a top brand in the global beer industry. The company is currently the fifth largest producer of beer by volume. In order to determine future strategies for the company, we must first consider the attractiveness of the beer industry. The ability of Modelo to compete successfully is determined by the strength of the external environment against them. There are intense competitive forces within the beer industry. This fierce competition represents the greatest threat for Modelo. There is high differentiation in products and advertising. Within the beer industry there is competition from both domestic products and import products, so companies have many types of competitors to be aware of. There is also a great threat coming from the possibility of mergers and acquisitions in the industry such as InBev and Anheuser-Busch. As large companies acquire others, they can become dominant industry players as they gain cost and brand benefits from economies of scale and market share. Anheuser-Busch is a dominant market leader in the United States. They have 45 percent of the United States market share, and 75 percent of the beer industry??™s profits. Anheuser-Busch has been able to take advantage of economies of scale and control their costs. Anheuser-Busch has also purchased over 50 percent of the shares outstanding in Modelo, but hold minority voting rights. Anheuser-Busch produces its beers in foreign markets, because it is cost effective for them to do so. They are also industry leaders in the amount spent on marketing campaigns. Anheuser-Busch has partnered with Modelo to distribute its products in Mexico.
SAB Miller and InBev are other large players in the global beer market. SAB Miller currently has 23% of the U.S. market and InBev is world??™s largest brewing company in terms of volume. There is potential for a merger between InBev and Anheuser-Busch which would create a super-company with 1/5 of the total world market share that may pose a threat to smaller beer companies including Modelo. In addition, there are many smaller microbrewers in the beer industry that produce differentiated and regional beers. Modelo is also strongly positioned versus their competitors in regards to liquidity. Over the last three years, however,? Modelos? liquidity has been decreasing as demonstrated by decreasing current and quick ratios. Even with this downward trend,? Modelo? remains much more liquid than any of its major competitors and compared to the industry and sector as a whole. None of? Modelos? competitors are able to cover their current liabilities whereas? Modelo? can do so almost three times over. This difference may exist due to the company??™s low operating expenses and low interest expenses. In response to InBev, Modelo has the opportunity to use its Mexican roots to capture the large beer-drinking markets in Mexico and in the population of Mexican immigrants to the U.S. There is increasing popularity of light beverages and flavored alcoholic beverages, so it may be beneficial to invest in development of these alternative products. Also, Modelo may potentially benefit from partnership with Anheuser-Busch as it merges with InBev. This could allow them to continue to expand into other international markets, benefit from economies of scale and distribution networks, and benefit from strong brand recognition (Brown, Roath, & Pheann, 2009).
Discuss whether or not Modelo should diversity its business. If so, what business should it enter and why
I believe Modelo should diversify its business. Currently they are in the business of producing and selling of beer products. However, they do sell t-shirts, cups, mugs, and koozies. But what if the beer market goes south There are several reasons this could happen: a decrease in population, which leads to a smaller drinking population; diversification of customers??™ tastes and preferences; a totally saturated beer and low-alcohol beverage market; and stricter laws. Therefore it is essential for Modelo to adopt strategies for future sustainability??”one to strengthen its core liquor business and offer a range of beverages other than beer; the other is to expand business opportunities into areas other than the liquor business. These diversified businesses are basically either vertically integrated or founded upon the core competencies, both of which are close to their main business, namely alcohol beverage business. Also, Modelo already is successful in distribution so adding other alternatives would not be expensive.
Thompson, A.A., Strickland, A.J., & Gamble, J.E. (2010). Crafting and executing strategy:
The quest for competitive advantage: Concepts and Cases: 2009 custom
edition (17th ed).
(Brown C Roath J Pheann J 20091130 Corona Beer: From a Local Mexican Player to a Global Brand Case Analysis)Brown, C., Roath, J., & Pheann, J. (2009, November). Corona Beer: From a Local Mexican layer to a Global Brand Case Analysis. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from
(Management Review: Markets and Strategy 20090615 Trends in the Global Beer Markets)Management Review: Markets and Strategy. (2009, June). Trends in the Global Beer Markets. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from
(Som A 2008 Corona Beer: From a Local Mexican Player to a Global Brand)Som, A. Corona Beer: From a Local Mexican Player to a Global Brand. In J. Portz (Ed.), Crafting & Executing Strategy: the Quest for Competitive Advantage Concepts and Cases. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions.
(Wikipedia 20100802 Beer in Australia)Wikipedia. (2011, February). Beer in Australia. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from

How Successful Were the Nazis in Creating a Volksgemeinschaft

How successful were the Nazis in creating a VolksgemeinschaftBetween the years 1933-39 the Nazi party set upon an idea of creating their own race of racially pure Germans, an Aryan race. To do this they had to exclude other people, such as unfit and not racially pure Germans from ???their??™ race, they set upon the challenge of Volksgemeinschaft. Volksgemeinschaft is a people??™s community, where everybody was equal in race. The Nazi party was prepared to go to extreme lengths to ensure that they got this racially pure race, killing unfit Germans was a solution in the years 1933-39 with the euthanasia program. The Nazi??™s wanted to alienate all other races, including the Jews. Hitler wanted a community joined only by blood and race, anyone else was not considered to be part of the Volksgemeinschaft program. Hitler wanted his Aryan race to spread throughout the world and for the Nazi party to become inferior. By the years 1936 and 1937 Hitler and the Nazi party were strong within Germany, the support of the Nazi party was immense and Hitler saw this as an opportunity to radicalise the Nazi party, take things further and more extreme. Hitler announced new rules for Jews. Hitler first began increasing pressure on them to ???voluntarily??™ sell their business??™ this was the beginning of the attack on the Jews. Hitler pressured Jews to sell their well earning business for well under the market value to Aryan race German. With less Jews in charge of business??™ this would leave more area for Germans to get in on the market, with the Jews removed so was competition. The net was slowly tightening on the Jews with Goring introducing two decrees in 1938 saying that Jews were restricted to how much raw materials they could receive, the second decree announced that all public contracts would be removed from Jewish businesses. This was the first major stepping stones in the persecution of the Jews. As many Jews in Germany at the time had well paid jobs, such as Doctors, Dentists and Lawyers, the Nazi??™s needed to take this away from them, or decrease their earnings and stature in the community, by 1939 any Jew who had these jobs were forbidden to practice. For the Volksgemeinschaft to work the Nazi first had to exclude the second major majority, the Jews, they did this effectively by use of concentration camps. All Jewish people in Germany in the years 1938 had to wear identity cards with a large ???J??™ stamped on them , indicating that they were Jewish. Jews were being segregated out of Germany society. In introducing Volksgemeinschaft Hitler had to solve the problem of the Jews, he did this relatively harshly towards the end of his spree, but it did work. The German community had no problems with the goings on and Volksgemeinschaft was on its way to being implemented in Germany in the years 1933-39. Hitler had to do many tasks to succeed in introducing the Volksgemeinschaft; he wanted to create a large field of German pure breeds, to do this he needed to increase the population drastically. He introduced a policy where all women should stay at home, no woman should work. Hitler persuaded the woman of Germany to fall pregnant, offering incitements to the woman that did fall pregnant. This way the population of Pure Germans would increase. Hitler concentrated lots on the fact that he wanted many women to stay at home, cook the tea for their husbands and to create more Aryan race children. Also Hitler thought of the other side of this, he ordered the destruction of many disabled and unfit babies and young people who were created either by unfit Germans them self, which were not racially pure, and even handicapped Aryan children. Hitler wanted his race to have no weaknesses. If women didn??™t work, there would be increased family allowance and the honour Cross of German Mother Hood . Woman would be offered extra payments from the Nazi??™s if they were to stay at home and create these Aryan race children, mothers were rewarded with money for the work they did. This was all introduced in order to entice Women from the work place back to their homes and to have babies. Increasing the population was a well thought out plan for the future made by Hitler; he did have long term plans for himself and Volksgemeinschaft. The Nazi party also passed new laws that were to change the curriculum in schools, this way the Nazi party could influence the young and get the youth hooked on the Nazi party at a young age, when people are most influential. Hitler set up a number of youth schemes in the years 1933-39. The Hitler youth movement was very popular amongst most German children . Hitler set up camps where the school children could play ???war??™ and pretend to be in battles. This was Hitler??™s idea of building up the Aryan race for the future, the future of war and other wild plans Hitler had at the time. Hitler had many things going his way at this time, he had the Jews under control, where he was gathering them up and sending them to either concentration camps or putting them in shanty towns, where many would go days without food and water. In Hitler??™s eyes the Jews were slowly but surely being ???exterminated??™ Hitler also used the same methods for other social groups that could cause a burden on Germany, beggars were taking off the street, put in either work houses or concentration camps and also homosexuals were rounded up and the same fate waited for them. As time went on Hitler??™s methods of clearing Germany on his hindrances was getting more and more radical, more and more ruthless. He was prepared to do whatever it took to create this Aryan race he dreamt of. Hitler also contradicted himself in many of his policies, Hitler always was defiant in woman staying and home and being the idle homemaker, but when Germany hit low times approaching the war he needed all the woman back in work doing the men??™s jobs, and making military supplies(rearmament). Hitler also was fully for family values, how an ideal couple shall make lots of racially pure babies for Germany, but also in his aim to produce as many new bourns as he could he contradicted himself again, by sending the SS to purposely made brothels where the SS would act as husbands and impregnate as many woman as they could. This is the total opposite of Hitler??™s policy of traditional family values. Towards the end of the 1930??™s things started to decline for Hitler ever so slightly. The support that was there for him previously was no longer, many were pulling out of the Nazi party and its extreme policies. Hitler did try to gain back what he had lost, by promising the middle class more jobs and even gifts if they were to go Nazi. Hitler implemented Volksgemeinschaft up to a point where society would allow. Hitler??™s wild ideas passed over many of German people??™s community heads. He could no longer get away with some of the plans he had come with, the euthanasia program was a huge risk, and the public never took to it. Hitler??™s support began the decline. Aiming at the majority he was giving promises that he could not deliver. Hitler??™s majority of support came from the middle class; these were the people that found it hard to turn a blind eye to Hitler??™s promises of an easier life, more money per head etc. The lower working class supported Hitler throughout Germanys regions and found it irresistible to not get interested in Hitler??™s air filled promises. At its peak the Nazi party was a party which could do no wrong, they were constantly campaigning round Germany and even sabotaging other party??™s elections and speeches and turning the blame back on the victim??™s party, all to gain votes, the other parties could not do as much rallying and campaigning as the Nazi party for one main reason, money. Hitler??™s Nazi party were not scrimping and saving and charging their own ???flock??™ to come to meetings like other parties, Hitler has his party well funded and organised. Much of the funds that Hitler had been from big business, sort of like an investment, they give the money to Hitler now, and he will make it worth their ???while??™ in the future, by eliminating the threat of Jews and communism and competition in general. Many big businesses were scared that if communism got it, then there lively hoods would be destroyed. As all things under the communism rule has to be shared, so big factories would fall to the government and the owners would become simple employers. This was crushing way of life for many so a lot of big businesses were prepared to pour in cash to Hitler to stop this communist ???threat??™. One of Hitler??™s most extreme policies other than the Jews was his Euthanasia program, this first started off with Euthanasia in young children but he later adapted it so that mature adults could be killed for have minor defects with their physical/mental condition. This was an effective way for him to get ???rid??™ of unfit people from Germany, and to strengthen the country further with its Aryan race. This shows that Hitler was 100% committed to introducing Volksgemeinschaft and he got so far as to introduce this extreme Euthanasia program. Hitler was big plans to create this Volksgemeinschaft idea, how far he got it debateable but he certainly implemented in far enough for the community to start asking questions and what the Nazi party were doing was in anyway justifiable

Corning Builds a World-Class Workforce

The new American factory worker, Kevin Fleming has a university degree in business administration and three another associate degree and a promising future at Corning Inc. as Fleming was an education-minded man, being a factory worker was a comedown. Out of 8, 000 applicants at Corning Inc. he was one of the 150 people who was hired after weeks of testing and interviews. Corning continuously hiring people who are able to perform in teams and are capable in production processes.
The Blacksburg replaces a traditional and old plant where many workers stood after and it seems that the production was merely deducting. Because of this situation, Corning starts to seek or search for high-quality work force. The employees are being allowed to change the manufacturing process. Corning starts Japanese-style teamwork system. The result was a testing and interviewing process for factory workers. The applicants first have to pass muster with the Virginia State Employment Service. They will undergo the three-hour orientation, two half-hour interview, and will go on to test their math and writing skills, and will be trained as a group. Once on the job, workers are expected to undergo continuous training at least 10 percent of their days off.
Jill Bishop says the system at Corning gives everyone who wants it ???an opportunity for growth???. Blacksburg is about as close as an American company has come to offering Japanese-style lifetime employment. Much like the Japanese system, the plant uses 10 percent buffer of unskilled part time workers. Those workers can be laid off in hard times. Corning workers work a three-or-four-day week with shifts of 10 or 12 and a half hour with rotating day off. The average Corning production worker has two years of college with a $23, 000 annual base salaries more than a starting local school teacher who has four-year degree. In addition, the overtime average wage was $28, 000 and some earned nearly $40, 000.
??¦ Developing not only management but also its employees is significant. To keep up with competition, employees should be given with a number of reasons to stay with the company, and do their jobs exemplary well. Their continuous growth, the right compensation and benefits, and work-life balance are just some of the things that motivate employees to perform better, producing better results for the customers and ultimately, the company.

How Successful Were the Cities in the Spread of Lutheranism

The cities also had higher literacy numbers than in the countryside, therefore articles by Martin Luther could be understood by more numbers of people . This made the printing press quite effective thus making it a important factor, which contributed to the success to the spread of Lutheranism. Elizabeth Eisenstein, a historian states that that printing did not just spread Protestant ideas but helped to shape the Reformation in the first place, she stated that, ???no printing press, no reformation??™, which shows how significantly important the printing press was in the contribution to the spread of Lutheranism. It was also easy to reach the peasants through the use of woodcuts. Scribner likened these as homemade gin, ???cheap, crude and effective??™. However it did not ensure total control over the Reformation, as others could use the printing press to go against his ideas.
Individual people such as Philip Melanchthon and not to mention Martin Luther himself were also important in the success of Lutheranism. Martin Luther initiated the challenge to the existing Catholic Church through his condemnation of its practices and doctrine. He displayed great courage in maintaining his position and was able to deal with accusations and threats made by Cardinal Cajetan, John Eck, the papacy and the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Also his great display of energy and creativity resulted in a mass of literature and it would be fair to say that by 1521, Luther had laid down his theological agenda on paper and woodcuts for the illiterate.
Philip Melanchthon was also an important figure who contributed towards the success of Lutheranism. When Luther was in captivity in Wartburg Castle between 1521 till 1522, Melanchthon wrote the first systematic and pure work of the new faith in 1521 entitled, ???Loci Communes??™. He was the most important in laying out an organized explanation of the new faith, but also in trying to restrict the radical tendencies of others, such as of Andreas Carlstadt, who wanted to speed up the rate of reform and change. It was also Melanchthon who drew up the, ???Confession of Augsburg??™, which is the Lutheran state of belief.
Although events such as the Peasants??™ Revolt and Andreas Carlstadt challenged Lutheranism, it helped Lutheranism to spread indirectly, because they conformed Luther??™s belief that reform had to be initiated and guided from the upper class, which are the authorities, as he outlined in his treatise, ???Adress to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation??™. These events also emphasised for Luther the dangers of allowing the laity to read the scriptures and interpret the word of God for themselves. Preachers and teachers were necessary in the localities in order to guide and instruct. Therefore their role in the spread of Lutheranism was important as well.
By 1525, Lutheranism had developed into a popular movement. What had begun a excuse to form a debate, had developed into a protest, which was supported by cities and the countryside. The implications of this movement were profound as by 1555, because the success of Lutheranism changed the whole religious structure of Germany. Some other important factors which contributed towards the success of Lutheranism is the role of the princes. The protection Luther received from some princes such as Frederick of Saxony and Philip of Hesse allowed the movement to develop in the face of a troubled and inexperienced Holy Roman Emperor. The princely support also become more organised and official in the form of leagues established in 1526 at Torgeau and in 1531 at the Schmalkkaldic league to defend Lutheranism. However it was quite risky for the princes to support Lutheranism, as they could lose their title.
Furthermore it is apparent that Luther had the backing of the nobility through the Imperial Knights, which were an independent group of minor noblemen whose forefathers had been extremely influential during the Middle Ages, but whose influenced now had waned. They proposed Luther to give military backing, however he refused as he had a pacifistic approach to reinforce his ideas. He didn??™t need their assistance as he already had the support of Frederick of Saxony and there was little opposition against Lutheranism. As Lutheranism became stronger and more of the princes started to become Lutheran, it was more accepted by everyday society. The movement was now largely controlled by them and therefore the role of the princes also contributed towards the success of Lutheranism.
Charles V was also important towards the success of the spread of Lutheranism. When his father Philip I died, he inherited large amounts of countries and therefore had a lot of responsibility. He was nineteen when he was elected Holy Roman Emperor and needed the backing up by the princes, it was therefore why Luther survived the Diet of Worms in 1521. If Charles had been more involved in unifying the Church, the spread of Lutheranism could have been set to halt, however because the French threat in northern Italy and rebellions in Castile and Valencia in Spain, Charles was unable to give his full attention in Germany, thus allowing Lutheranism to successfully spread.
It therefore can be said the cities and towns were an important contributing factor which helped Lutheranism successfully to spread. Euan Cameron stated, ???It was much easier for city tradesman to learn about the Reformation??™. However other factors such as the role of the nobility and the printing press were equally as important. It was also Charles V??™s absence in Germany which helped with the spread of Lutheranism, as when he would have been present in Germany he would have ordered it directly to halt.

Cornflake Girl

A) In both of Tori Amos??™ songs, ???Pretty Good Year??? and ???Cornflake Girl??? she uses female vocals (her own voice), with a piano as her main instruments to create a certain mood of the song. However, while in ???Pretty Good Year??? it seems that those are the only two instruments used, in ???Cornflake Girl??? Amos also includes drums and guitar to keep the tempo of the piece. There seems to be a slight whistling sound at the beginning of ???Cornflake Girl??? as well, which just adds a little bit of texture to the piece. Both pieces are performed in duple meter, and both are simple with the bigger beats being broken down into 2 smaller beats.
The dynamics of these pieces help to convey Amos??™ strong messages that she is trying to get across through the changing dynamics and the lyrics. In ???Cornflake Girl??? there are times when the instruments all drop out except for the vocals and a soft piano in the background. This adds to the urgency and causes the listener to pay attention to the lyrics more specifically at these points. In ???Pretty Good Year??? the beginning of the song starts out piano, very soft and sad sounding, until the second to last verse when it gets louder, becoming a harsh forte. This accentuates these lyrics, just as in ???Cornflake Girl,??? until it gets soft, and sadder again until it fades out.
The lyrics in Amos??™ songs have strong meanings that resonate long after the song is over. In ???Pretty Good Year??? when one is listening to it, it is obvious that the song leaves a sad deeper meaning with you. Amos seems to be talking about a boy named Greg who is growing up, and dealing with his ???wonder years??? being over which we can see when she says ???they say you were something in those formative years.??? She seems to be talking about a boy who is lost in his own life. The dynamics in the song mix with the sad lyrics, about being lost and add to the sadness of the song. ???Cornflake Girl??? has a very deep meaning, when Amos talks about two different types of girls, ???raisin girls??? and ???cornflake girls.??? From what she sings, it seems that these ???cornflake girls??? are more in abundance, and in the first few lines she talks about how she never was a cornflake girl. She relates that to being a good thing, her hanging out with the raisin girls. It seems like cornflake girls can be compared to being the average, norm and raisin girls are unique and harder to find, though in the song Amos sings about a girl switching over or losing her uniqueness, although it is unclear whether that girl is her or not.2). In the song ???Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds??? there are a variety of instruments that fade in and out throughout the entire song. There are male lead vocals as well as a few male background vocals, a lead guitar, bass, an acoustic guitar, drums, and it sounds as if there are maracas in part of the song as well. The song starts out soft and slow, and progressively gets louder and sounds as if the voice is getting closer to the forefront. The song always gets louder and more aggressive at the chorus, and fades out at the verses. The song was written in the mid sixties, specifically 1967, in the height of the bands drug phase. Coincidence or not the title of the song has the initials LSD, with the lyrics mirroring the hallucinations felt when on the drug. Specifically, ???a girl with kaleidoscope eyes,??? which reflects what one would see when tripping on LSD. The song seems like it would either be written when they were high, or in remembrance of a time when the writer was high. The song starts out in triple meter for the intro and the first verses, and moves into duple meter during the chorus when the drums start to come in, but it is changed in a way that when it switches from ? to 4/4 one of the quarter notes now equals a eighth note of the new meter.C).
The first song I chose was a song by Jack Johnson titled ???Better Together.??? This song is typical of Johnson, with the main instrument being just his male vocal with an acoustic guitar. The other instruments that he chooses to incorporate into this song, is a mellow drumbeat with some bass. There are also a few times that the keyboard comes into the song, usually after the chorus but it does not stay throughout the entire song. The dynamics of this song remain very much the same all the way through. The song starts out very softly before the vocals come in, and even after Johnson enters the song remains mellow and quiet, giving the entire song a relaxing feel. This songs meter is very simple, with each measure in 4/4 making the song in duple meter. Further than that each beat is individually divided into triplets, making it compound or swung. The lyrics to this song are pretty simplistic; Johnson is singing a love song, which is both apparent through his lyrics (even the title) and the way in which he sings those lyrics. The second song I chose was ???She??™s Leaving Home??? by the Beatles. The song is very slow and a lot more mellow than a lot of the Beatles other songs. The song has two different male vocals from two of the members of the group, but it is sung one person at a time, except for the chorus, which has a background vocal. The song does not have any drums or guitars, but the instruments that are used are different strings, mainly what sounds like the violin, viola, cello, string bass, and what clearly is a harp. The dynamics of the song are very soft and almost eerie. For the most part the song stays very piano the whole time, slowly peeking at the chorus and then towards the end, for what most likely is emphasis on the lyrics. The lyrics are very moving for this song, and probably reflect something that may have been happening at the time. The lyrics are clearly about a young girl who is ???leaving home??? and has not returned. The lyrics combined with the soft and slow melody creates what seems like a spooky meaning behind the lyrics, as everyone wonders where this girl went.EXTRA CREDIT: Discuss the metric/rhythmic relationship between the main guitar riff and the rest of the ensemble in the song ???Vaseline??? by the Stone Temple Pilots, from Purple (1994).The metric/rhythmic relationship between the guitar and the rest of the instruments in this song is called syncopation. The guitar seems to be playing a mixture of eighth and sixteenth notes in pattern in a ? beat, while the drums plays in 4/4, which creates the syncopation or the slightly weird sound that we hear.

How Successful Was the Paris Peace Settlement in Satisfying the Demands of France

The historian Zara Steiner??™s view of the Treaty is that France was given a considerable amount of protection through the drastic cuts in Germany??™s military power and its territorial, financial, and commercial losses . She believes that the Treaty was in fact successful in fulfilling French security but much ???would depend on the manner of its enforcement??? ; It was not the terms of the Treaty that were flawed, it was how it was enforced. She also argues that France deliberately set high demands whilst ???not actually believing that the Germans could raise the sums being discussed in Paris??? . In the knowledge that the Reparations committee would make the necessary adjustments , by setting high demands France would guarantee a more favorable figure was realized. Germany had cost France vast amounts of both money and loss of life through World War One and so naturally France was ???firmly in favor of making Germany pay??? . Clemenceau, ???obsessed with guaranteeing French security??? , pushed for punitive reparations in an attempt to economically cripple Germany. Their bid to place an indemnity upon Germany however was disregarded by President Wilson. Even with the indemnity dropped, further concessions were made for Germany as they complained they were not able to fully pay the reparations and so the final amount was reduced to ?6,600 million. France had not been successful in crippling Germany economically as Germany were more than capable of paying the reparations without destroying their economy; they were still a threat to France. In terms of Germany??™s military strength, the number of soldiers was halved from the initial proposal. Germany was not allowed an air force or navy and was restricted on most other aspects of warfare. In terms of militarily weakening Germany, France had been successful as Germany??™s military strength, at least theoretically, had been reduced to a minute proportion of its initial size; an army limited to 100,000 soldiers did not pose a threat to France. Though France was able to successfully regain control of Alsace Lorraine from Germany, they were unsuccessful in annexing the Rhineland, Belgium and the Duchy of Luxembourg. France was very much still concerned about their eastern borders shared with Germany. Protection had been offered by both Britain and America to France but a last minute alteration by Lloyd George however meant that the British guarantee would only become operative upon the ratification of the American counterpart . France looked to use the Rhineland as a ???buffer zone??™ against Germany. Once again however this was blocked by President Wilson who did not favor any annexations taking place; France was not even permitted complete control of the Saar coal-fields as compensation. France had not been successful in making the necessary territorial gains to feel secure from Germany. They had neither the borders nor the military guarantees to feel safe from the threat of a German attack; the construction of the Maginot Line along France??™s eastern border with Germany clearly shows that France did not feel their territorial gains had effectively weakened Germany. It is clear to see that France did not emerge from the peace conference having achieved everything they set out to. The main success for France would be the reduction in the German military; if Germany were to maintain the proposed levels of military strength then she would not be a threat to France ??“ unfortunately this was not the case. The main problem facing France was security as, unlike Britain and the United States, they share direct borders with Germany. President Wilson in particular did not seem to appreciate this as he blocked not only the proposed indemnity on Germany but also any annexations other than Alsace Lorraine. It can be said that overall, the Paris Peace Conference had failed to provide France with a level of security they felt safe with; though Germany were made to accept full responsibility for the war, they did not have to pay the full amount of reparations nor indefinitely give up the Rhineland area. In retrospect however, I would agree with the historian Zara Steiner that France purposely set high demands with the knowledge that Britain, the United States and Germany would each attempt to reduce their demands whatever they demanded. The main goals of France, to weaken Germany militarily, economically and strategically had all been achieved, however due to the poor enforcement of the Treaty, it was not to the extent France initially set out to achieve.

Corneal Transplant

My case study will critically analyse and evaluate a patient I cared for in an ophthalmic day surgery. This case study will be based on an episode of care for a patient with complex care needs during a long day shift. The patient came to the hospital for surgery to the left eye due to trauma caused by a fall in her home.
The operation that performed was Left keratoplasty and penetrating graft. For the purpose of confidentiality and anonymity as part of the NMC Code of Professional Conduct (2008), my chosen patient will be referred to as Mrs Y. A summary of the patient is described in appendix 1. Also attached as an appendix 1, is a signed verification slip by my mentor at the placement area stating that this is a true account of a patient I have participated in caring for.
In this essay, I will discuss the relevant pathophysiology and pharmacology related to the patient??™s condition and the rationale for the given care. This will be done by using relevant supporting literature, government/clinical guidelines and hospital policies. I will also discuss the significance of the roles of the various MDT members that were involved in the care of my chosen patient.
I will then generate an actual care plan that clearly identifies the nursing problems of the patient from which a validated nursing diagnosis will be initiated. This will be followed by goals outlined for each nursing diagnosis consisting of measurable behaviours of my patient. Interventions will then be outlined giving supporting rationale which will be presented for each nursing intervention. This will be attached as Appendix 2.
In the concluding part of the essay, I will evaluate the effectiveness of the care that I gave to my patient by discussing the outcome for the patient with regards to aspects of the care that well and why. I was introduced to Mrs Y who was admitted pre-operatively to gain her consent for me to participate in her care post-operatively. The NMC code of professional conduct states that you are accountable for your own practice (NMC, 2004).Whatever the level of your involvement, you must be satisfied that participants have given informed consent to take part in the research study before you act. Therefore, it was my responsibility as a student nurse to gain the consent of the patient. I explained to her that, it was part of a case study for my assignment. She gave me her consent and was willing to answer any questions I might have to help with manage her care.
Mrs Y came for an emergency procedure for corneal perforation to the left eye. This involved the full-thickness replacement of bottom of the corneal tissue. This is known as Penetrating Keratoplasty. This was as a result of trauma from a fall at her home.
Sometimes the cornea is damaged after a foreign object has penetrated the tissue, such as from a poke in the eye, which is the case of Mrs. Y. According to the National Eye Institute, situations like these can cause painful inflammation and corneal infections called keratitis. The avascular cornea is one of the most sensitive tissues in the body with the highest density of sensory neurons just below the epithelium. (Corbett, Rosen and Bratt 1999).
These infections can reduce visual clarity, produce corneal discharges, and perhaps erode the cornea. Corneal infections can also lead to corneal scarring, which can impair vision and may require a corneal transplant.
According to Denniston and Murray (2009), Keratoplasty is also known as corneal transplant, which is an operation used to remove a damaged cornea and replace it with healthy corneal tissue from the eye of a suitable donor. A corneal transplant can improve sight and relieve pain in a damaged eye as in the case of Mrs Y. This is the commonest of all transplant procedures.
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellent (NICE) published its guidelines in July 2007 for corneal transplants. The guide from NICE advocated that the current evidence on the safety and efficacy of corneal transplant appears adequate to support this procedure. However, it also advocated that normal arrangement of consenting, audits and clinical governance must be in place to allow for continuous monitoring for safety and efficacy.
Mrs Y was returned to the recovery room one and half hours after surgery. Caring for my patient post-operatively required for me to use the five steps in the nursing process. The nursing process is ???An organised, systematic and deliberate approach to nursing with the aim of improving standards in nursing care??? (Rush S, Fergy S & Weels D 1996).Nursing knowledge is used throughout the process to formulate changes in approach to the patients changing condition. During the process, nurses use this knowledge to identify problems and changes that are occurring to the patient. Caring for a patient requires the nurse to communicate with the patient to determine how they are feeling and gain the results of implemented care from the patient. Communication is necessary in nursing profession and practice to develop a therapeutic relationship with patient (Hewison 2004).
Throughout this process, I will use the Roper, Logan, Tierney model (1996), Activities of Daily Living which centres on the patient as an individual and his relationship with the five components of the model: Physiological, psychological, sociocultural, politico economicand environmental.
Mrs Y presented with some obstructive disorder upon arrival into recovery. It was observed that, she appeared to have cyanosis, dyspnoea with the use of accessory muscles when breathing and a productive cough. Checking her vital signs presented a respiratory rate of 24bpm. From further nursing assessment, it was found out that Mrs Y has a past medical history of asthma. This is generally considered to be a chronic obstructive airway disease because it causes resistance or obstruction to exhaled air. Asthma is a chronic disorder of airway inflammation and bronchial hyperactivity characterised symptomatically by cough, chest tightness, shortness of breath, increased sputum production and wheezing as a result of decreased airflow. (Jual, L. 2009. Pp. 118).
There are two types of asthma; Intrinsic and extrinsic. Mrs Y. was diagnosed to have the intrinsic type which according to Galbraith, Bullock, Manias, Hunt and Richards (1999), unlike the extrinsic type, is not triggered by allergens but is more related to an alteration in autonomic nervous system function. Just like Mrs Y who developed asthma 25 years ago, it is more common in people who develop asthma later in life. In intrinsic asthma, the airways are considered hyperactive as the parasympathetic stimulation dominates causing bronchoconstriction and various mucus production. Her current medications included inhaled corticosteroids- beclomethasone and beta 2-agonist salbutamol.
This is an anti-inflammatory drug which isthe most effective and commonly used long-term control medications for asthma. They reduce swelling and tightening in the airways.Corticosteroids do not generally cause serious side effects. When they do occur, side effects can include mouth and throat irritation and oral yeast infections. ( It was very clear to us from the pre-operative notes that, Mrs Y voiced out anxiety and stress about the surgery which could have been a cause of her current condition.
Salbutamol, an inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonist was administered to Mrs Y via the use of a nebuliser. Salbutamol works by acting on receptors in the lungs called beta 2 receptors. When salbutamol stimulates these receptors it causes the muscles in the airways to relax. This allows the airways to open. ( Salbutamol is most commonly taken using an inhaler device. Inhaling the medicine allows it to act directly in the lungs where it is needed most. It also reduces the potential for side effects occurring in other parts of the body, as the amount absorbed into the blood through the lungs is lower than if it is taken by mouth.
When administering the inhalation therapy, we ensured that Mrs Y was sitting upright. This position aids the expansion of the lungs and provides greater surface area of lung tissue where the therapy can act. We also provided Mrs Y with respiratory therapy by posture drainage and percussing. These technique help to loosen and mobilise secretions.
The effect of the medication administered was monitored as well as her vital signs. This was to determine amount and characteristics of bronchial secretions immediately following therapy. Tachycardia is an adverse effect of beta 2-agonists therefore we monitored her pulse rate as per regime. Being a student nurse, all pharmacological and therapeutic interventions I carried out was under the supervision of my mentor and/or trained staff as per NMC Code of Professional Conduct (2006) as well as the trust policy.
Each registered nurse is accountable for his/her practice. This practice includes preparing, checking and administering medications, updating knowledge of medications, monitoring the effectiveness of treatment, reporting adverse drug reactions and teaching patients about the drugs that they receive (OShea 1999).
Mrs Y was provided with adequate hydration to decrease the thickness of bronchial secretions. Because Mrs Y has a past medical history of type 2 diabetes, we monitored her blood glucose levels as bronchodilators can produce hyperglycaemia.Oxygen therapy was administered through nasal cannula ( to prevent feeling of suffocation) as prescribed to treat her hypoxia with regular oxygen saturation checks until she was able to maintain an oxygen saturation between 95-100% on room air.
As anxiety and fear can aggravate the condition, we provided a calm atmosphere and reassuring attitude throughout Mrs Y??™s care. After nearly two hours of nursing intervention, our goal was met through maintenance of airway patency and reduction in congestion. Mrs Y was instructed on the importance of stress management to prevent this condition from resurfacing in the future.
In accordance with the British Thoracic Society, the long term aims in asthma management involves abolishing the symptoms, maintaining the best lung function, preventing the development of permanent lung impairment and avoiding unnecessary drug side effects. After an initial assessment, the person with asthma must maintain regular contact with a skilled health professional for follow up, support and education. Therefore, upon discharge, a referral was made to the specialist respiratory district nurse to visit Mrs Y for support and education.Apart from the nurses, the other MDT members associated with Mrs Y??™s care were; consultant surgeon, anaesthetist and pharmacist.
About an hour after Mrs Y was returned to the ward from recovery post-operatively, she complained of pain in and around the operated eye.With the help of my mentor, we performed a comprehensive assessment of pain to gain an accurate picture of Mrs Y??™s pain experience, which included; direct observation to assess body language, using the pain assessment tool 0-3 where 3 is severe pain, 2 is moderate pain, 1 is mild pain and 0 is no pain, interviewing Mrs Y discussing her interpretation of the cause of pain, exacerbating factors and their coping strategies. These approaches should not be used in isolation but should not be holistic, a ???combination of coordination, communication and liaison??™. (Munafo & Trim 2000).
Pain is a subjective experience and must be described by the patient in order to plan effective treatment.Mrs Y described her pain as sharp in the eye and a throbbing pain in the left temple, and scored the pain a 2. We obtained her vital signs; Bp- 145/87, pulse- 91, temp.- 36.7 degree celsius in order to compare with the subsequent observations.
We noticed that she was tachycardic but the other vital signs were within her normal range, and recorded the information. We then assessed the condition of the eye to check if there is any bleeding from the wound site or any abnormal swelling or inflammation. Everything was normal in accordance to the type of surgery performed.
The first nursing intervention was to help Mrs Y to identify effective pain-relief measures suitable for her. This is because the patient has the most intimate knowledge of his or her pain and the effectiveness of pain measures e.g. relaxation, distraction or medication.
Mrs Y wanted pharmacological intervention for the pain so we ensured that the appropriate medication had been prescribed on the drug chart and also, the post-operative medications such as the eye drops had been dispensed by the pharmacy.
We administered the medication as prescribed and in accordance with the trust policy and procedures. According to Galbraith, et al (1999), a nurse must practice within the policies and procedures of the hospital or community trust, as well as follow the legal framework of government legislations.
According to the NMC (2006), the administration of medicine is an important aspect of the professional practice of persons whose names are on the council??™s register. It is not solely a mechanistic task to be performed in strict compliance with the written prescription of a medical practitioner. It requires thought and the exercise of professional judgement.
She had been prescribed 1gram of paracetamolorally PRN as stated on the drug chart. Paracetamol works as a painkiller by affecting chemicals in the body called prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are substances released in response to illness or injury. Paracetamol blocks the production of prostaglandins, making the body less aware of the pain. (NHS Choices). According to the BNF (2010), the side effects of paracetamol are rear, but rashes, blood disorders, including thrombocytopenia have been reported. Pharmacologic therapy, such as mild analgesic, maybe needed to provide adequate pain relief.
The most common reason for unrelieved pain is failure to routinely assess pain and pain relief. Many clients silently tolerate pain if not specifically asked about it. We evaluate the effectiveness of analgesic at regular, frequent intervals after each administration and especially after the initial doses, also observing for any signs and symptoms of untoward effects such as drowsiness. The analgesic dose may not be adequate to raise the patient??™s pain threshold or may be causing intolerable or dangerous side effects or both. On-going evaluation will assist in making necessary adjustments for effective pain management.
Upon evaluation after half an hour of administering the prescribed analgesia, Mrs Y described her pain as ???completely gone???. Her vital signs when checked again were within her normal range and her pulse rate was down to 62bpm. Therefore no referrals had to be made to the pain team or the anaesthetist.
On the contrary to the actual problems elaborated above, the next nursing care I will elaborate on is a potential problem of risk for infection related to increased susceptibility to surgical site post-op.The nursing goal that was developed was that Mrs Y will exhibit healing of surgical site with no symptoms of infection.
Because of the fact that Mrs Y is elderly and diabetic, it is important to promote wound healing by encouraging a well-balanced diet and adequate fluid intake. Optimal nutrition and hydration improves overall good health and this promotes the healing of any surgical wound. According to Shaw, Lee and Stollery (2010, p151), with a keratoplasty surgery, the first post-operative care dressing must be carried out by the nurse. We must ensure that the graft is in place, the sutures intact and the anterior chamber is formed. Aqueous humour may have leaked through the suture line, causing a flat anterior chamber. Instil antibiotic, steroid and mydriatic eye drops as prescribed. I participated in doing these for Mrs Y under supervision of my mentor.
The healing process is highly dependent on specific communication and precise interaction between various cell types such as epidermal cells. (Cherry, Hughes, Ferguson and Leaper 2001). The ophthalmic patient may have other diseases such as diabetes or arthritis as present in Mrs Y as these conditions have ocular manifestations.
Under supervision, I instructed Mrs Y to keep a patch over the affected eye until the first eye drops are started 4-6 hours after surgery. Wearing an eye patch promotes healing by decreasing the irritative force of the eyelid against the suture line. Use aseptic technique to instil eye drops such as; teach patient the importance of hand washing before eye care; hold dropper slightly away from the eye so as not to touch the eye lashes; when instilling, avoid contact between the eye, the drop and the dropper and teach the technique to the client and the family members.
Aseptic technique minimises the introduction of microorganisms and reduces the risk of infection as hand washing is the most effective method of preventing infection. Education of Mrs Y must also include having a clear knowledge of the symptoms of graft rejection such as reduced vision, red eye and pain, and an understanding of relevance of seeking prompt treatment.
Also, because of the short hospitalisation, we must teach Mrs Y and her relatives to assess for signs and symptoms of infection such as reddened, oedematous eyelids; prominent blood vessels; drainage on eyelid and eyelashes; elevated temperature (pyrexia) and decreased visual acuity
Early detection of infection enables prompt treatment.
Provide patient with instructions and education on: Medication storage e.g. antibiotic eye drops must be kept in fridge, dosage and frequency, cleaning the affected eye correctly. Correct usage and storage of medication as well as proper eye care helps to minimise or prevent the risk of infection.
I can conclude that, all my aspects of care that I demonstrated went well and each one of my sets set in the care plan was met. Mrs Y was able to maintenance of airway patency and reduction in congestion within two hours of nursing intervention after experiencing airway obstruction. She was also pain-free and comfortable within 30 minutes of complaining of pain. A referral was made to the district nurses upon Mrs Y??™s discharge to help with distilling her eye drops as well as health education on eye care. REFERENCES
British Medical Association (2010) British National Formulary. London, BMA and Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.Cherry, G.W., Hughes, M.A., Ferguson, M.W.J. and Leaper, D.J (2001). Wound Healing In: Morris, P.J. and Woods, W.C. (eds) Oxford Textbook of Surgery. Vol.2. Oxford University Press: Oxford.Corbett, M.C., Rosen, E.S. and O??™Bratt, D.P.S. (1999) Corneal Topography: Principles and Applications. BMJ Books: London.Denniston, A., Murray, P. (2009) Oxford Handbook of Ophthalmology. (2ndedn) Oxford University Press: Oxford.Galbraith, A., Bullock, S., Manias, E., Hunt, B. and Richards, A. (1999) Fundamentals of Pharmacology: A text for Nurses and Health Professionals. Addison Wesley Longman.Hewison, A. (2004) Management for nurses and health professional: theory into practice. Oxford. Blackwell science.Lynda, J. and Moyet, C. (2009). Nursing Care Plans and Documentation: Nursing Diagnosis and Collaborative Problems. (5thedn) Lippincott: Williams and Wilkins.Munafo, M. And Trim, J. (2000). Chronic Pain: A Handbook for Health Care Professionals. Butterworth Heinmann: Oxford.NMC.[Homepage of the UK Nursing and Midwifery Council].[Online] 2006. Available from [Assessed 10/10/2010]Nursing & Midwifery Council, (2008) The Code: Standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives. NMC: London.NMC. [Homepage of Nursing and Midwifery Council]. [Online] 2004. Accountability. Available from [Assessed 06/10/2010]NHS [Homepage of the National Health Service]. [Online] 2009.Available from [Assessed on 04/10/10]NEI. [Homepage of National Eye Institute]. [Online].Available from[Assessed on 03/11/2010].O??™Shea E (1999) Factors Contributing to Medication Errors: A Literature Review.Journal of Clinical Nursing. 8, 5,496-503.Roper, N., Logan, W.W., Tierney, A.J. (1996)The Elements of Nursing: A model for nursing based on a modelfor living. (4thedn). London: Churchill LivingstoneShaw, M., Lee, A. and Stollery, R. (2010) Ophthalmic Nursing. (4thedn). BlackwellThe Nursing Process.[Online]. (2008). Available from [Assessed on 02/10/2010]The Mayo Clinic [Online] (2008).Available from [Assessed on 11/10/2010].

How Stalin Died.

How did Stalin die
Name: Nikki Souther
Date: March 31, 2010
Instructor: Sherri Singer
Stalin tells his guards to take the night off and sleep in. For someone of Stalin??™s character that would be the last thing to come out of his mouth. Interviews show that Stalin even taunted his guards asking them ???Want to go to bed??? But guards don??™t rest until Stalin dies. Which is ironic to say the least. Why would Stalin tell his guards to take the night off Did Stalin know that he was to die that night If not, what were his reasoning??™s Was he to commit suicide
Later that evening there were signs that Stalin was awakening because a light had come on in his room but still no actual contact with Stalin had been made. In fear for Stalin their leader, Lozgachev was sent to check on him. Opening up the door to his room he sees Stalin lying on the ground in his own urine.
Shocked, the guards rush to call his ???drinking companions??? (Stalin??™s Death), the Pulitburo. ???It was their tardiness in responding and calling for medical help that put questions of doubt in Radzinski??™s mind??? (Stalin??™s Death). Mr. Radzinski raised the question of Stalin being ???poisoned by his guard Khrustalev, under the orders of his master, KGB chief Lavrenty Beria??? (Stalin??™s Death).
Work cited page:
Wilde, Robert. “Stalin”. 3-31-10
My notes from class
Educational, Spartacus. “Joseph Stalin: Biography”. 3-31-10

Core Values

Honor, Courage, and Commitment:
The Importance of the Navy Corps Values to Naval officers From the very first day the United States Navy was founded on October 13, 1775, certain key principles or core values were established that led the United States to a victory during that time in the Revolutionary War and have continued even to today to bring the Navy success in every challenge it has met. Those core values are honor, courage, and commitment. These three words are the backbone on which every naval service member is established and must be ready to protect our nation and our freedom by. However, it is the naval officer who leads others into the fight, and therefore it is the naval officer who should lead the others by these values to the upmost importance. If the naval officer defines his/her life by these values, displaying them in every daily action, he/she will earn the respect of their subordinates and also of their superiors. The most important core value that a naval officer can uphold is the Navy core value of honor. Honor is to hold oneself to high moral and ethical standards, as well as others. Honor is honesty, justice, and the idea of doing what is right in all situations. But, most of all, honor is a person??™s integrity. An example of honor is as follows. A few years ago, a family friend of mine, Shawn Holman, had just successfully completed the Navy flight school in the top percent of his class and was going to be sent to Virginia to join his new squadron. He was granted a few weeks leave to go home and pack and move all his belongings before having to arrive. The night before he was supposed to fly out to Virginia, his sister??™s wedding was being held. Shawn went to wedding and drank and had a great time celebrating his sister??™s new marriage and his graduation of flight school. However, he had celebrated too much for too long. Shawn had to get to the airport right away otherwise he would miss his flight. He took his father??™s car and proceeded to drive to the airport. But, combined with getting behind the wheel drunk and tired and late, and thus speeding, Shawn was pulled over by a cop. The cop was going to arrest Shawn but let him go after he heard his story about flight school and his new squadron. Thankfully Shawn made it to the airport and joined his new squadron in Virginia. However, as soon as Shawn got there, he immediately went to the commanding officer and told him the whole story of how he had been drinking too much and got pulled over. Shawn stated he should not be a pilot or join this squadron after his poor actions. The commanding officer agreed and he lost his pilot??™s license. Even though Shawn made a very stupid move to start with by drinking and then driving, he faced his fear of not being able to fly planes and told his commanding officer the truth, even though there was a chance the commanding officer may have never heard about it. Shawn was honest, showed high morals and ethics, did what he believed was right in the situation and therefore kept his integrity. Had Shawn not done the honorable thing, and instead just pretended like the whole thing never happened, he would be living a lie to this day and would not have been fair to himself or those around him. He might have done the same thing by drinking before flying and caused serious problems for his peers and the rest of the Navy. And he would have lost total respect for himself, decreased his qualities and not been great leader or example for others. Courage is not just something that comes from the gut or heart in moments of need or in emergencies, nor is it something that can be handed over on a plater once one becomes a naval officer. The Navy core value of courage is a quality learned by leaders through difficult lessons and is made a habit, an every day way of life. This kind of courage is standing up for what he/she believes in despite the feeling and recognition of fear or temptation and still doing what is understood to be right. For example, in the short film clip we watched from Generation Kill, the Lieutenant showed great courage to stand up to the Captain by declaring that the strike called to take out the supposed enemy was too close to them and the rest of their men. The Lieutenant believed that the strike call was dangerous and instead just wanted to call close fire support. However, the Captain wanted to call the strike in order to look good for his superiors and possibly earn medals and admiration, even though it was potentially putting his men at a serious risk. The Lieutenant made a bold move to face his superior officer in such an intense situation, but he did what he believed was right. He showed great moral and mental strength standing up to the Captain for the safety of his men without fear and earned lots respect because of it. In a contradicting example, the Lieutenant could have been a cowardice and not said anything to stop the Captain from calling the strike. He could have been too fearful of getting in trouble for questioning his superior that he could have put his men at risk, and even more so, potentially injured or killed them. Commitment is the day-to-day duty and dedication of the naval officer to continually work to bring his subordinates and superiors together as a team with positive encouragement towards the improvement of the quality of work, others, and themselves. A naval officer must be committed to high moral and ethical qualities such as integrity, honesty, knowledge, etc., as well living them through his/her daily life to create a constant positive change in the men and women whom work under him/her. An example of commitment is in the story of the Vincennes. The Captain claimed to see an enemy plane take off in the direction of his ship and shot it down, even without a positive confirmation that it was actually an enemy. He stuck to his gut feelings with a good intention, even though he turned out to make a terrible mistake. In the same situation, the Captain also fired on Iranian boats that were not big enough to hurt his ship or his men, but he did so again with good intentions and the thought to save his men from potential harm. He showed dedication to keeping his men safe and worked as a team with the other U.S. ships to do so. However, when he was being tried in a courtroom for his mistakes of shooting down a civilian plane and unlawfully firing at enemies that had not engaged first in action, the Captain failed to show commitment to his cause. In fact, he did anything but that by changing his story around numerous times and eventually proving that all he really was was a bad leader who had poor morals and ethical standards and only wanted to kill the enemy for purpose of killing them. He was not dedicated to his beliefs or other values and lost his job because of it. Through dedication, the strength to stand up for what you believe in, and the integrity to do what is right, a naval officer can gain much respect and continually improve upon their success as a leader. The Navy corps values of honor, courage and commitment, if lived through in everyday actions by not only the naval officer, but by his/her subordinates, peers, and superiors, the United States Navy will continue to be an undefeatable source in protecting out nation and our freedom.

How Spaniards Could Treat Indians Savagery in the Age of the Enlightenment

Reading the book ???The Conquest of American: The Question of the other??? by Tzvetan Todorov, it becomes very clear that Spaniards treated Indians with such cruelty and savagery. Indians were not treated as humans; they were tortured and killed ???In order to be more secure, the Spaniards take him (Cazonci) prisoner; when they fail to obtain satisfaction, they do not hesitate to torture him and his family: they are hanged, their feet are scorched with burning oil, their genitals prodded with a metal rod??? (page 97). Indian women were raped, their children were abused; all were infected by foreign diseases. They also ???had carried off the wives and daughters of a great number of chieftains??? (Page 58). They did not hesitate to destroy the Indian history, religion, and tradition. According to the book, they ???burned the Mexicans??™ books in order to wipe out their religion, they destroyed their monuments in order to abolish any memory of a former greatness??? (page 60).
One may wonder why Spaniards even dared to treat Indians who were already settled in their land and were land owners of the American continent so savagery or even barbaric in the age of the enlightenment To answer this question, I would like to offer three different reasons. The first two reasons are drawn from the second chapter of the book: Conquest. While the third is drawn from my own understanding and interpretation of the readings, which might be briefly mentioned but not emphasized in this book.
1) Refraining to take action against the Spaniards: One of the main reasons that led to savage treatment of Indians by the Spaniards was the passive behavior of the Indians toward their invaders. I personally believe that their passive behaviors were mainly due to their strong beliefs in superstition (although the author does not use this word rather he says that the way of communication for Indians was between man and nature and not between man and man). Indians believed that ???the arrival of men greedy for gold and power??? was a ???network of natural, social, and supernatural relations??? and ???it always proceeded by omens, their victory is always foretold as certain??? (74). Indians refused to oppose the Spaniards because they thought ???they are taken for gods??? (95). They said ???where would they come from but from the heavens???. ???Why would the strangers come without cause???. ???A god has sent them, that is why they come??? (95).
2) Lack of unification between different Indian tribes: Another reason that can explain the Spaniards??™ savage treatments toward Indians is lack of unification between them. According to the book, ???Montezuma sends ten messages to the Cazonic to ask for help??? (94), however, he provided ???no active response to the Aztecs??™ request??? and said ???what purpose would I have in sending men to Mexico, for we are always at war when we approach each other, and there is rancor between us??? (95).
3) Lack of knowledge of Indians about their invaders: Indians had no knowledge of Spaniards. They did not know who they are, where they come from, what they eat, what type of weapons and animals they use, and most importantly they were unaware of Spaniards??™ intentions for occupying their land. Indians believed that ???the arrival of men greedy for gold and power??? was a ???network of natural, social, and supernatural relations??? (74). The Spaniards??™ behavior remains incomprehensible to them ???why do they want this gold These gods must eat it, that could be the only reason they want it so much??? (96).
These reasons combined can explain why Spaniards treated Indians in such savagery manner. It seems that combination of these factors exacerbated their position and made them weaker than what they really were. If one these factors were non-existent, it might have helped Indians in defending their land or dignity.