Month: April 2017

Core Values Paper

Core values are the principles and standards established by an organization. These values are shown through all managerial decisions, customer service, community support, level of success, and employee retention. Values may differ from one organization to the next but contain the overall basic structure. These are a few honored through companies; honesty, integrity, professionalism, respect and dignity (2007). Management??™s values can been seen throughout the organization and have a direct affect on the internal environment (Dombrowski, 2006). Kudler Fine Foods (KFF) falls into this same category. KFF??™s values are centered on great customer support, providing high quality foods and strong community involvement.
My business related values are honesty at all levels, leading by example at all times, respectful working environment, providing prompt customer service, supplying quality products and supporting the local community. The Williams Institute Ethics Awareness Inventory results, profiled me as most closely aligned with ???Obligation??? and least aligned with ???Equity.??? It also stated I had a Deontological philosophy. According to this philosophy, an ???action is considered morally good because of characteristics of the action itself, not because the product of the action is good???. (Deontological Ethics) Based on this profile, I feel a duty to do what is ???morally??™ right through rational thinking. This relates directly to my end vision of Kudler Fine Foods (KFF) to implement a new ordering system to make the process more efficient and effective and offer the customer the highest quality of products available.
KFF has established a great reputation with customers. My vision was to expand on this foundation and offer the greatest value to the customer. By transitioning to bi-weekly deliveries, customers would be assured the freshest produce and vegetables throughout each week and minimize the chance of empty shelves. Customer loyalty is established when customer??™s feel their needs are being met and are a top priority. By ensuring they are offered the freshest produce at the lowest possible price, customer service is achieved. Through this process, KFF would have been positioned to accommodate the needs of their loyal customer database.
Another trait of my values profile was a sense to foster personal growth. This value was demonstrated through the one-on-one training Kathy was to provide to the store managers. This process would not only train employees to assume new responsibilities, but it would also reassure Kathy of her importance within the company. During this training process Kathy and each manager would be required to work side by side each day and learn the procedures required to implement the new system. Through their interaction, each person would have the opportunity to develop a respectful and professional relationship, which instills a sense of self-worth within the company. Kathy would also have been available to interact daily with customers in the stores and establish personal relationships. Through these interactions, Kathy could have offered her personal suggestions on products and listened to the needs and wants of her customers.
Companies have the ability to create an honest and respectful environment, and employees have the duty to implement these rules (2008). To achieve this value, Kathy should have communicated the expectations for each employee and held each person accountable for their actions. Weekly meetings with employees could have enforced the strict rules surrounding these issues. By offering initial training sessions with new employees, Kathy could have expressed her desired participation and expectation for the future. Reporting positive feedback to employees from customers would also help ensure they continue to understand the importance of the environment to the success of the company.
Leadership is a common value within most organizations in the United States. Developing leadership skills is essential for promotion within a company. As one employee is promoted, a new position is available for another employee promotion. This process continues throughout the company to the lowest level of employment. By implementing the new ordering system, Kudler Fine Foods allowed current managers to advance to a new role and open new opportunities to lower staff members. KFF would create leadership positions by developing new roles for each manager. This would also allow other employees to take on additional responsibly within the company.
Values are an important aspect of any business. However, establishing values is only the first step in the process. Managers have a responsibility to not only implement each value, but to demonstrate them throughout each day. Expressing the importance of theses values is critical in continuing the success of the company. New employees need to understand the ethical values surrounding their new work environment. Without proper training, new employees are doomed to break these values.

(2007). Core values. Bloomsbury Business Library – Business & Management Dictionary, 1938. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database
(2008). Managerial Values and ethos for MBA students. Managerial Values and ethos, 2008. Retrieved from
Dombrowski, D. (2006). The Road to Sucess Starts with Defining Core Vaules. HVACR Management Magazine. Retrieved from
Deontological Ethics. (2010). In Encyclop?dia Britannica. Retrieved May 28, 2010, from Encyclop?dia Britannica Online:
Hildebrand, D. S. (2007). Workplace Courtsey. suite101. Retrieved from

How Smoking Impacts the Health of Young People

How smoking impacts the health of young people.
Tobacco is a green, leafy plant that is grown in warm climates. After it is picked, it is dried, ground up, and used in different ways. It can be smoked in a cigarette, pipe, or cigar. It can be chewed (called chewing tobacco) or sniffed through the nose (called snuff). Nicotine is one of the more than 4,000 chemicals in cigarettes and its smoke. It is the chemical that makes tobacco addictive or habit forming. Smoking can become a life-long habit and it can be worrying for parents to think that their child might decide to smoke and become a dependant smoker. Research indicates that initiation into smoking behaviour is well established before the end of teenage years. Surveys of smokers show that approximately 90-per-cent begin using tobacco by the age of 20. The earlier the onset of smoking, the earlier the risk of smoking-related disease and the harder it is to quit.
Many young people today have an “invincibility complex,” or the idea that they cannot be hurt by their actions. As a result many are blind to the smoking effects that could cause lifetime damage to their bodies. While they may know the harmful smoking effects, this does not stop the rise in young people smoking. It is a sad but true fact that youth and smoking is a crisis that needs to be dealt with.
The number one reason that many young people start smoking regardless of the smoking effects on their health is peer pressure. Someone they respect or wish to emulate gives them a chance to start smoking, and tells them they will be fine. The young people do not want to appear “uncool” and so they start smoking. Another reason that kids take to smoking is because of the advertising of the cigarette manufacturers. Cigarette ads are aimed at the young, making smoking look like the cool, popular thing to do. Things emphasised by cigarette ads are young adults who have a strong sex appeal, or things that appeal to young guys, like weapons and cowboys. Young people are given the idea that smoking makes you sexy, strong, and invincible.
Sometimes young people take up smoking because they want to look mature. After all, smoking is considered an “adult” behaviour, and they think they will look cool when they smoke, or that they will look more grown up. Finally, many young people take up smoking because they want to rebel against their authorities. No matter what the activity, if you tell kids they cannot or should not do something, some will want to do it simply just to go against their authority.
The differences between subjective feelings of those who smoke and those who don??™t are shown in behavioural changes that are more apparent in young people. Young people seem to be more abrasive when smoking or they feel like they are older and wiser when they smoke. We see a lot of smokers giving each other rewards in social aspects such as conversations, companionships, and other common social contacts. Research has proven the fact that nicotine has the ability to suppress feelings, suppress appetite for food, is used as stimulation after sex, and is a good way to relax from troubles and feelings of insecurities.
Young people like to act as if they are someone special or dangerous. By smoking they can act on those feelings. Because it is so forbidden it becomes more alluring to them. The problem is that when they take that first puff, they can become addicted. The idea that they are breaking the law or going against their parents and schools is an addiction within itself. Young people like to get attention; it does not matter if it??™s good attention or bad attention. They crave attention and by smoking they get this attention. The other teens look at them in all kinds of ways and the adults get upset and don??™t know what to do.
Smoking is also an emotional addiction. As young people become more addicted to smoking, the emotional effects become more pronounced. The small amount of caffeine in cigarettes (from the nicotine) causes an energy rush that may lead to increased speed of talking and elevated mood. Smoking may make you feel euphoric and relaxed. This is a function of the chemical effect of nicotine in cigarettes. Smoking may also be used as an emotional crutch in unpleasant times. Due to the buildup of the habit, smokers become emotionally dependent and may start to smoke when they are sad, scared or unhappy.
Mass media campaigns are one of the most effective means to reduce smoking, according to anti-smoking organisations. Evaluation of Australias National Tobacco Campaign??™s famous Every cigarette is doing you damage ad (first released in 1999) shows that after the first six months of the mass media campaign smoking rates in Australia dropped by 1.4 per cent, representing 190,000 fewer smokers. An essential element of the campaign strategy was to provide information on reliable and effective aids and support programs for people wanting to stop smoking. The percentage of daily smokers in the population decreased by 3 percent in the 16-19 years age group.
Reflecting patterns reported that smoking among secondary students declined during the 1980s but stalled during the first half of the 1990s. Between 1996 and 2005 a significant fall in smoking was seen in all age groups and the rates recorded for 2005 are the lowest since the survey series began in 1984??”see Graph over the page.Prevalence of Australian secondary school students who reported smoking, Australia 1984??“2005 – 12??“15 year olds and 16 and 17 year olds.
Source: White and Hayman 2006
It can be seen from the graph that the return to a downward trend in smoking among teenagers coincides with the launch of this nationally coordinated National Tobacco Campaign. Although not specifically targeted at children, there is evidence that teenagers were well aware of the campaign, and that the programs success in reducing adult smoking rates appears also to have had the unintended but welcome effect of reducing smoking in younger age groups as well. Other tobacco control activities over the same period, for example increased tobacco taxes, have contributed to the decline of young people smoking. The Government has increased taxes considerably over the last 20 years in order to combat the problem of young people smoking.
In addition, these graphic advertisements (see pictures below) were designed to elicit an instinctive reaction in smokers. The use of new information and graphic images aimed to evoke reactions that led to changes in peoples recall of the information and response in taking action to quit. Young people watching this campaign are able to see first-hand on what smoking can do to their bodies. By seeing the images rather than imagining them they can make a more clear decision on whether to start smoking or not. Rather than stating the effects of smoking in a way that says they are probable or there is a certain risk, this media release shows the graphic, real portrayals of the actual effects on the organs. They are reminders to smokers to put quitting on their today agenda rather than putting it off. Disability, disfigurement and early death due to smoking are real and cannot be ignored. The graphic campaigns aim to evoke an emotional response in smokers strong enough to help them quit.
While young people are generally aware that tobacco smoking is harmful, many still underestimate the extent of the danger relative to other lifestyle risks. Very few young smokers are able to accurately estimate their chances of dying in middle age. Most are able to name only a handful of the numerous diseases caused by smoking. Smokers also have little understanding of how tobacco-related illnesses could affect the quality of their lives. For example, research shows that fewer than one in ten smokers are able to identify smoking as a cause of stroke.
Studies also reveal that a large number of 18-year-old individuals exposed to anti-smoking ads and quit smoking ads did realise the dangers of smoking but it did little to prevent them from buying cigarettes because of the fact that other advertisements on smoking had produced a positive thought about smoking. This is attributed to the fact that teenagers are less receptive to information about health dangers than they are about the general psychological notion of smoking that??™s promoted by tobacco advertisements.
Earliest Quit Smoking ads focused on health issues such as lung cancer, effects of passive smoking etc. However, nowadays, Quit Smoking ads focus on issues such as erectile dysfunction and loss of attractiveness. A recently released Quit Smoking ad shows a 58-year old woman suffering from Buerger??™s disease as a result of smoking.Health promotion initiatives are a series of actions and approaches aimed at increasing awareness about current health issues. They involve social marketing to increase awareness and develop personal skills. Quitline is an advertising campaign to help people who want to quit smoking. It also involves strategies to create supportive environments such as legislation to prevent smoking in public places, resulting in reduced exposure to passive smoking.
The National Tobacco Youth Campaign (supported by Quitline) was undertaken during 2006-2007 and aimed to contribute to a reduction in the uptake of smoking among young Australians. The key message aimed to encourage the primary target audience (young people aged 12-24 years) ???to reject smoking??™ and the secondary target audience (smoker parents) ???to quit smoking in order to discourage your children from smoking??™.
The campaign was very successful and it made young people aware of the dangers of smoking and helped them make positive choices whether to continue to smoke or not. Overall, results demonstrated that the National Tobacco Youth Campaign reached the vast majority of smokers in the target group, as well as under-age smokers, and making them feel uncomfortable about their smoking and therefore consider quitting.
There are also many other ways in order to prevent young people from taking up smoking. The Government has implemented a lot of programs and laws to help people combat and quit smoking.
New laws commenced in phases between 1 January 2005 and 1 July 2007 and include:
? no-smoking anywhere inside pubs, clubs, restaurants and workplaces
? no-smoking in commercial outdoor eating or drinking areas
? no-smoking in outdoor public places such as patrolled beaches, children??™s playground equipment, major sport stadiums and within 4 metres of non-residential building entrances
? no sales of tobacco products to children under 18 years of age
? mandatory training of employees who sell tobacco
? mandatory no-smoking and quit smoking signs
? restrictions on how tobacco products can be displayed at retail outlets
? no tobacco advertising or competitions
? tobacco vending machines must be located in bar or poker machine areas only
? television commercials show dangers related with smoking in graphic details
and more recently
? plain packaging on cigarette packets to avoid colourful eye-catching packetsIn conclusion, in the earlier years, tobacco advertising encouraged people to smoke. Today the government has forced the makers of cigarettes to advertise diseases caused by tobacco on the packets, on billboards and website/quit organisations. In Australia, regular cigarette smoking causes many more deaths every year than alcohol, heroin and all other drugs put together. Most adult smokers begin smoking in their teenage years, and most wish they could quit. Young people often don??™t realise how quickly a person can become ???hooked??™ on smoking. Talking with them can help them gain confidence in their ability to make healthy, independent choices. Although adults often say they feel ignored by teenagers, teenagers report that advice from adults about cigarettes is very helpful.Bibliography:
URL (Internet address). Date Viewed
20 April 2011
21 April 2011
21 April 2011
Google images 22 April 2011
23 April 2011

Core Study- Terry

Core Study: Terry (2005)Aim: to test the validity of Terry??™s theory of Memory.Hypotheses:
A. Students will recall the 1st adverts shown equally well in immediate or delayed recall.B. Students will not recall later adverts shown with a delay in recall.Variables:
The independent variable was the different advertisements shown to the participants. The dependent variable was if the participants recalled the adverts immediately after they were presented or whether the participants could recall the ads after a delay.Background Research: Terry decided to test people??™s memories of television advertisements. Each Advert was about 10 months old at the time of the experiment. Also each advert was of a different product. The ads were more than 30 seconds long and were presented in groups of fifteen. Terry used students as his participants. To make sure that his experiment was accurate he used the same group of students took part in both conditions. During the delay they were given a written task to do for 3 minutes. The dependant variable was how many brand names the participants could recall. They could recall them in any order they wished in both immediate and delayed recall.Results: The results generally showed a serial position effect. This means that whether an advert was recalled depended on where it was in the list (its serial position), not on what the product was. When the participants recalled the brand names straight away, there was a primary effect and a recency effect. Overall Terry??™s experiment showed that participants showed to have good recall of the first few adverts (the primary effect) and a good recall of the last few adverts (the recency effect). This was put into the participant??™s long term memory.

How Smart Phones Have Changed the World

According to “Cellular Phones: How They Changed the World and Where Do We Go Now” (2013), ???The cell phone was conceptualized in 1947 but didn??™t come to pass until 1973 when Dr. Martin Cooper made the first ever cellular call.??? Cell phone first and foremost allow people to do business on the go instead of being tied down to a landline or a desk. Many companies are going completely wireless which allows them to keep in contact with clients and staff easier. In business, smart phones have a lot of added benefits like multi-person conference calls, send edit and receive emails, and call forwarding which will forward important calls to someone after business hours.
Sutter (2012), ???These phones, such as those running the Apple iOS and Google Android operating systems, offer “more computing power than Apollo 11 when it landed a man on the moon,” Nancy Gibbs writes for Time.??? Smart phones have become such an important part of people??™s lives; its helps them remember people they??™ve met by adding them to their contacts, it allows businesses to respond faster to their customers, you can hold a virtual meeting with business associates and sharing and making changes on the go. ???Smart phones can record your sales pitch, we can get updates orders on the road and you can monitor inventory without being in the workplace (Schiff, 2012).
Each passing year businesses have to keep up with current technology or be left behind. The costs of technology is coming down as it is improved and streamlined. A few years ago It costs hundreds of dollars to buy a cell phone and they were the size of a size 9 shoes, now you can get them for 10$ at Target with a plan for $35 a month and they can fit in the palm of your hand. Many companies are offering mobile apps which they can use to access things like their bank accounts and pay bills. ???Simplifying the world is what consumers want, and with so many people on the go, mobile apps, as well as usage will only multiply; causing businesses to change with the times.??? (“In What Ways Have Smart Phones That Incorporate Wireless Technologies Changed The Business Landscape??? 2011).References:
Cellular Phones: How They Changed the World and Where Do We Go Now.? (2013).? Retrieved from
Sutter, J. (2012). How smartphones make us superhuman. Retrieved from
Schiff, J. (2012). 10 Ways to Use Smartphones to Grow Your Sales. Retrieved from
In what ways have smart phones that incorporate wireless technologies changed the business landscape. (2011). Retrieved from

Core Mil Values and Leadership

CORE MIL VALUES AND LEADERSHIP1. Since the Army is collective and regimented org the values of Army and its leadership will have to be a two kinds :-(a) Collective.(i) Loyalty. The loyalty should be to:-(aa) Subordinates.
(ab) Superiors.
(ac) The Unit.
(ad) The Army.
(ae) The Nation.
(af) To the divinity within oneself.(ii) Team spirit and espirit-de-corps.(b) Individualist.2. The army is an org which is collective in its principle and hierarchical in its structure and functioning. The structure is based on the following :-(a) A system of chain command.
(b) Accountability.
(c) A system of just awards and correct punishment.3. For the functioning and efficiency of the system an indl has to subordinate himself to the org. Thus the indl subordinates himself to the gp (Army). The Army is subordinate to the nation. Thus all ideals in the Army are collective whether honesty, integrity and loyalty. Thus the soldier is always thinking of the nations welfare first, his gps next and his own in the end. This is what constitutes the famous words of Chetwode which is the IMA Credo. The nation and the Army is responsible to see to it that the indl is made efficient to fulfill his task.4. Motivation Profile. The four motivation factors in various combination which impact a man joining the Army are:-(a) A career.
(b) Spirit of adventure.
(c) A sense of Patriotism.
(d) A feel for str, sacrifice and heroism.5. The first two factors are most imp for an indl and the org is resp to see to it that he is comfortable and once it is done it is his resp not to carry these motives beyond a pt for then, they become a source of worry and demotivation. Most of ills in the army today stem from this overstress of career and monetary motives. Thus they become sources of demotivation as they do not come from our deeper self but from external sources and are dependent on the opinion of the others. They are centered around the ego and desire. They have their place and if allowed to go beyond a pt it will lead to careerism and unbridled egoism. Therefore an offr should right from the beginning aim at the third and fourth motivating factors.6. Imp of an indl must be recognised and not minimised for always it is the indl who progress and pursues the rest to progress. We must therefore aim at permitting an indl to grow in turn the collective org will progress.Individualist7. An offr must know his subject thoroughly and must thirst for more knowledge. Certain indispensable psychological qualities are:-(a) Example.
(b) Courage.
(c) Audacity.
(d) Honour of the warrior.
(e) Truth.
(f) Sacrifice of the lower to the higher self.
(g) Self control and self mastery.
(h) Integrity.
(j) Humility.8. Leadership is the key to sources and motivation, and motivation level of a unit is directly related to the motivation of the Commanding Officer similarly for the subunits is the coy cdr. Although the qualities of a leader have many common pts for all stages there are distinct difference at the levels one for 2/Lt to Maj (Jr Leadership) one for Col to the highest posn.9. Certain qualities in Jr leadership which need to be dwelled are :-(a) Set example.
(b) Be calm and speak in a cont low tone.
(c) Take pers interest in all the soldiers of your unit.
(d) Lead from the front.
(e) Learn art of effective comn both oral & writing.
(f) Never humiliate a soldier in front of others.
(g) Punish only when absolutely necessary.Combination of Ideals10. Since the unit is the most imp level of collective Army org the max conc on motivation has to be placed at this level. There are two possible ways to do it :-(a) Encourage the CO to give greater responsibility to the soldiers and young offr to involve in them whenever possible in the decision making process.(b) Evolve team spirit, espirit-de-corps and indl motivation by having Sainik Sammelans. These must be held regularly with greater transparency its conduct and follow up remedial action should be taken.THE STAGES OF ETHICAL VALUES11. The core values of the Indian soldier are honour honesty and integrity, loyalty, competence, unity and courage. These are indispensable qualities in every offr and soldier. Therefore they have to be developed and practiced. At the lowest level for a Jawan these values are instincts which he does not care to understand or at most times these are given a religious colouring. He thus look upon his CO as a god.12. A young cadet or a more rational Jawan will try a give a rational explanation to these values and question them for a rational Answer. But these values escape the old of reason and soar up beyond into the spiritual. They tend towards the absolute and can??™t be defined in rational terms.CONCLUSION13. Our ethical impulses and activities begin like all the rest in the infra rational and take their rise from the subconscious. They arise as an instruct of right, an instinct of loss, of self subordination and solidarity with others. Men obeys the law w/o inquiry into the why and therefore, it corrects men crude and often carrying misperceptions of ethical instinct, separates and purifies his confused associations, shows as best it can??™t the relations of his often clashing moral ideas, tries to arbitrate and compromise between their conflicting claims arranges a sys of many sided rule of ethical action.

How Should the Kelly Gang Be Remembered

How should the Kelly Gang be rememberedNed Kelly has been described as a ???hero??™, ???father of our nation??™, and surprising as ???one as the most romantic figures in Australian history??™. Yet he was a criminal and a murderer. He shot and killed policemen, he kept innocent Australians hostage and was a thief. Why was he considered a hero and why is he still remembered today a legend more than a 100 years after his death He was a controversial figure, one that will always be remembered in Australian history, but for the right or the wrong reasonsHis whole family wasn??™t on the right side of the page, his parents were sent to Australia on a convict ship for committing petty crimes. Like father like son Ned??™s criminal career began at a young age in country Victoria. In 1874 he was jailed for stealing a horse, the starting of his crimes and his mother, Ellen Kelly, was jailed for wounding a policemen.Also in 1878 Ned and his younger brother Dan were falsely accused of attacking a wounded policeman. Both men fled to the bush where the Kelly Gang was formed. For sixteen months they avoided police, committing petty crimes to survive. They killed three policemen, robbed a bank in Euroa and held the town of Jerilderie hostage.In 1880 they seized the Glenrowan hotel and took many of the towns locals hostage. They made armour of thick steel to protect themselves from police bullets. Unfortunately the heavy armour made them clumsy. Ned was eventually captured and his brother Dan died in a fire when the Glenrowan hotel was burnt down.He was a thief and a killer, so why was Ned Kelly widely loved People admired his bravery and his defiance of the police. When it was declared that he was to be hung, 60,000 people signed a petition asking that he be spared. He was eventually hung at the Old Melbourne Jail on 11 November, 1880. Today we can still see a life size mask made immediately after his death. It is on display along with other Ned Kelly paraphernalia. He is remembered today in the popular expression, as game as Ned Kelly. But I don??™t agree with this remembrance of Ned Kelly. I don??™t consider him as the hero in Australian Folk-law, but a criminal based on the fact in the Fitzpatrick incident where he wounded a policemen, the Glenrowan shootout where he killed 3 policemen, he robbed banks and held innocent people hostage. I think Ned Kelly is infamous for the wrong reasons, I don??™t consider him as the brutal murder but not as a heroic hero either. He has committed a lot of crimes in his life and he shouldn??™t be commended for it, I think Australians are getting the wrong impressions from Ned Kelly. I think Ned Kelly did deserve to die in the end, as his life didn??™t do any right for the people, he was just a nuisance that was hard to get ride of.

Core Conditions & Core Skills

In order for Christian??™s counselors to provide proof of emotional health and spiritual maturity there should be a clear understanding of what is needed in these areas. This should include a heartfelt movement towards physical or mental wellbeing and a developmental state of mind in the likeness of Christ. As we embark upon the challenge of becoming trustworthy Christian counselors, we must possess certain qualities and characteristics that reflect core conditions as well as core skills as defined in our text, Caring for People God??™s Way:
??? Genuineness. ???Counselors must live out the change he desires to see in his clients???. We must practice what we preach.
??? Warmth. ???The ability to promote a sense of comfort in the client???. We must make sure our clients are at ease and comfortable in our company??¦establish a rapport with the client.
??? Positive regard. ???Anything the client believes, desires, or does is acceptable, positive regard should be given???. We must exhibit care and compassion towards a hurting and wounded client.
??? Support and challenge. We must support our clients through the ???tough stuff???; however we must challenge their destructive behavior and life style. (Clinton, Hart, & Ohlschlager, 2005, p. 37).
The core skills we demonstrate are noted in the way we:
??? Urge our clients and comfort and console them.
??? Warn our clients and point them in the right direction.
??? Encourage our clients to step out in faith.
??? Help our clients and support them spiritually.
??? Patient, not expecting too much too soon from our clients. Ultimately it is equally important that we incorporate effective listening as we focus on our client??™s needs. Genesis 1:27 reveals- ???So God created man in His own image; in the image of God created he him; male and female created he him???. This scripture is symbolic to the characteristics God has placed before me, which are my abilities to be humble and steadfast in my faith and the choice to believe in the Holy Spirit. The patience and capacity to remain gainfully employed with the same company for 39 years and finally retire are examples of the aforementioned. As a helper and volunteer in the community, I am competent and skillful in dealing with individuals on different socio-economic levels. Moreover my area of expertise focused on customer service, which equipped me with the skill of effective listening and the capacity to relate to my former customers??™ needs and desires.
Clinton, T., Hart, A., & Ohlschlager G. (2005). Caring for people God??™s way. Nashville,

How Sherlock Holmes (2009) Has Been Reappropriated to Suit a Modern Audience

The film, ???Sherlock Holmes??™ (2009), directed by Guy Ritchie, is a successful appropriation of the characters of Sherlock Holmes and Dr John Watson as they appear in Arthur Conan Doyle??™s novellas ???A Study in Scarlet??™ and ???The Sign of Four??™. It is successful because it re-invents these characters so that they are accessible and relevant to a modern audience. The plot in Ritchie??™s film is completely different from those in the two novellas but the presentation of the characters is similar in the most important aspects.
Conan Doyle??™s novellas were written and set in the Victorian Era where culture and values were very different from todays. In this era, novels and other written texts were the most popular mediums produced by composers. Society of that time was infatuated with science and the idea of a hero who could solve crimes with reasoning and cleverness had great appeal. This made Conan Doyle??™s writings a part of popular culture at the time. Today these texts are regarded as ???high culture??™. This is because of the dated language and values have made them not as accessible today as they once were.
There have been several appropriations of Conan Doyle??™s novellas into film over the years as film has become the most popular medium in popular culture. Holmes character has been reappropriated over and over because of its popularity. It has been constantly changed or re-energised to comply with the popular culture of the time. In the film, ???Sherlock Holmes??™, there have been several changes to the character of Sherlock Holmes from the writings of Arthur Conan Doyle to better appropriate him to a modern audience. In the film Holmes has a much better attitude towards women compared to the previous works. This is presented through his relationship with Irene Adler. Irene is a world class criminal who was said to be the only person ever to beat Holmes. This is a change from the novels where Sherlock was shown to be infallible. Irene Adler is an example of how the rise of feminism has changed society??™s views on women and their role in popular culture. Holmes??™ attitude towards women must change to comply with societies expectations. Throughout the film Holmes develops a love interest in Irene and there is a suggested sexual link between the two which is never confirmed. Irene drugs Holmes in her hotel room, later he is discovered nude and chained to the bed.
In the novels however, Holmes seems completely indifferent to women. He is even presented as sexist in ???The Sign of Four??™ when he says ???Women are never to be entirely trusted-not the best of them???. The novel is written in first person through Watson so we identify with him and his relationship with Mary Morstan. We observe Holmes cold and observational reasoning through Watson in the novels. The film however, is portrayed in third person. Therefore Ritchie has given Holmes a love interest in an effort to give him more human qualities. This helps the character relate to the audience and make him more likeable. Another way the film effectively relates to a modern audience is by introducing these romantic/love themes which are prevalent in most modern popular texts.Another change that has been implemented to the character of Sherlock Holmes is his addiction to drugs. In the novella, ???The Sign of Four??™, Holmes is shown injecting himself with a solution of cocaine. He reasons this use with the fact that he is bored between cases and requires stimulation; ???My mind rebels at stagnation??? he says. ???I abhor the dull routine of existence. I crave for mental exaltation???. In the film however, there is no evidence of Sherlock using cocaine. Instead he is presented as a heavy user of alcohol. At the end of his boxing match he grabs a bottle of spirits and rips out the cork with his teeth before taking a swig.
Ritchie has chosen not to present Holmes as a cocaine addict because the use of such drugs is frowned upon in today??™s society and would conflict with his status as the protagonist in the film. However a modern audience has a high tolerance of the abuse of alcohol. Holmes may have used alcohol as a way of coping with his everyday existence as he did with cocaine in Conan Doyle??™s novels. Also Holmes??™ use of alcohol makes him easier to relate to as he is presented with the same values and attitudes of today??™s society. In Victorian times little was known about the effects of drugs such as cocaine and it was considered to be a safe, non-addicting substance. This change is effective for a modern audience because it still presents Holmes as a flawed individual but his use of cocaine has been discontinued because of society??™s changing view on drug use.Another change that has been made to the character of Sherlock Holmes is that he is less egotistical in the film than in Conan Doyle??™s novels. For example in ???A Study in Scarlet??™ Watson is impressed by Holmes analytical powers and compares him to a fictional character in an Edgar Allan Poe novel. Holmes then professes his own superiority to this character at analysis and deduction. Watson responds to this by saying ???This fellow may be very clever, but he is certainly very conceited???. In the film there is little evidence of Holmes??™ egotistical manner but he is still presented as being confident in his own abilities.
Ritchie has chosen to make Sherlock Holmes less egotistical in the film in an effort to make him more likeable to the audience. In Conan Doyle??™s texts Holmes is presented through Watson. Watson??™s character provides the human qualities that Holmes lacks. The film however, is in third person. Holmes??™ character has been made less egotistical and more relatable to make him more likeable to a modern audience. In the film, ???Sherlock Holmes??™, there has been several changes to the character of Dr John Watson from the novels of Arthur Conan Doyle to better appropriate him to a modern audience. It is apparent that Watson is much more physical in the film compared to the earlier novels. For example in the opening scene where Lord Blackwood is about to sacrifice a virgin, both Watson and Holmes show an aptitude for martial arts (or boxing). They are shown physically beating up villains in order to stop Blackwood from committing murder. In Conan Doyle??™s novels however, Watson shows no evidence of physical capabilities. He is displayed as an observer of Holmes??™s actions in the novels not as a man of action.
Ritchie has incorporated more physicality and action into the film to make it more exciting for a modern audience. Guy Ritchie is a martial arts enthusiast so this may have compelled him to include more action scenes in the film. In the novels Watson is shown in first person, observing Holmes??™ actions. In the film however he is displayed in third person so the character must serve as more than just a narrator for Holmes??™s exploits. This is shown through his physicality in the film assisting Holmes in fighting a multitude of villains. This makes it an effective adaption from the novels as he plays a much larger role in assisting Holmes through an increase in physicality.Another change that has been made to the character of Dr John Watson is that he is more powerful and equal in his relationship with Holmes. In Conan Doyle??™s novels Watson is a passive observer and admirer of Sherlock??™s actions. He is subservient to Holmes and does not argue with his decisions or actions. For example in the novel, ???A Study in Scarlet??™, Holmes examines the murder scene of Enoch Drebber, Watson complies with Holmes??™s decisions; ???Come along, Doctor, we shall go and look him up???. He is in constant admiration of Holmes??™s actions; ???You amaze me Holmes???. However in the film, Watson is much more opinionated and the two are often squabbling. When the two are riding in a carriage Holmes gives in to Watson in an argument over Watson??™s waistcoat.
Ritchie has made Watson more powerful in this relationship because his character plays a much more important role in the film than previous works. Also it makes the film more entertaining because the banter between Holmes and Watson is used often as a source of humour. This makes the adaption successful because the film is entertaining, which is the aim of most modern popular texts. In the film ???Sherlock Holmes??™, important aspects have been kept similar about the characters compared to the writings of Conan Doyle to make the appropriation successful. Holmes is still displayed as an analytical and observational genius. This, in essence, is the crux of Holmes??™s character; it makes him who he is. This is evidenced in the film when Holmes deducts information about Mary Morstan??™s past, such as the fact that she was previously married, simply by observing her necklace and earrings. Similarly, in the novella ???A Study in Scarlet??™ Holmes deduces that Watson had been serving in Afghanistan by observing the colour of his skin and other minor details.In conclusion, the film ???Sherlock Holmes??™, directed by Guy Ritchie, is a successful appropriation of the characters of Sherlock Holmes and Dr John Watson from the earlier writings of Arthur Conan Doyle. It is successful because it reinvents these old characters to appeal to a modern audience without losing the essence of what makes the characters themselves. It does this by blending modern popular culture themes such as action, romance and humour with the characters of Holmes and Watson to create a piece that is accessible and relevant to a modern audience.

Core Competencies

m a n a g e m e n tCore competenceA companys most valuable resource
Sanjeev BaitmangalkarCore competencies are the capabilities that underlie leadership in any range of products or services, and enable a company to deliver a fundamental customer benefit. Besides defining business development priorities, regular core competence reviews also help in focussing on levels of investment, plans to strengthen skills and technologies, outsourcing decisions, alliances, internal deployment and developing a strategic architecture, among others. Read on to get an expert perspective on this critical driver of growth.
hat makes British Airways, Singapore Airlines, Wall Mart, Toyota or Dell different from the crowd When many companies make similar products, or offer similar services, what differentiates one from another Core competencies are the capabilities that underlie leadership in anyrange of products or services. Have you ever thought, what makes a small scale SPM builder like Bombay Machines, different They have built their core competence around strong fundamental design processes, and their value proposition to their customers lies in providing them with those small yet vital details that most would like to cut corners. That is why customers keep coming back to them again and again. What did Microsoft, Dell, Toyota, Matsushita, Sharp, Sony or Toshiba do differently yesterday that has put them in leadership positions today A firm can capture a disproportionate share of profits from future markets by building competencies today that will make a disproportionate contribution to future customer values. It has taken Toyota decades to get to their present position, although, much of its accelerated growth seems to have come in the last two decades. The length of time it takes to build competencies to build world-class leadership depends on the culture & learning ability within the organisation. It also depends on the size and resilience, but could take five, ten or even more years in building global leadership.For Toyota, it is in its culture and unique production system. For Toshiba and Sharp it is flat screens. For Sony and Matsushita, it is miniaturisation. HPs competencies are in measurement, computing and communications. 3Ms core competencies lie in adhesives, substrates and advanced materials across thousands of products. FedEx developed core competencies in logistics and bar coding. Wal-Marts ability to provide benefits of choice, availability and value to its customers has made it a leader. Motorolas competencies are in wireless communications and Goldman Sachs in financial engineering.What is core competence
Hamel and Prahalad define competence as a bundle of skills and technologies, and, core competence as a sum of learning across individual skill sets and individual organisational units. Any bundle of skills that yield a significant cost advantage in the delivery of a particular benefit is also core competence. Therefore, core competence must also make a disproportionate contribution to customer value. Core competencies are also the skills that enable a firm deliver benefits to the customer. Ace Designers too has developed competencies in strong fundamental design processes, and its value proposition of low cost pricing comes from volume production. Its focus is built around developing skill sets and technology based product centres. When MKL in Hubli developed new competencies around implementing lean manufacturing system and the JIT culture,Leading examplesW
70Some companies that have been market leaders continue to do so while others do not, why The answer is, these companies have built strong core competencies, and view it as their most valuable resource. Core competencies are also skills that enable a company to deliver a fundamental customer benefit. Hondas core competence is in combustion engines and gear trains.INDUSTRY WATCH – MODERN MACHINE TOOLS ? o c t o b e r 2 0 0 4 m a n a g e m e n tenormous cost savings had accrued from eliminating wastages and rationalisation. These were passed on to the customers in the form of price reductions. The company then went on to develop cost effective CNC lathes and co-developed a range of milling, drilling and surface grinding machines, besides large size CNC machining centres. This made a huge contribution to its customer value. Competition between companies, today, is as much for competencies as it is for market power and position. If one had to produce a list of capabilities that were important to the success of ones business, one will probably come up with a long list. It is not possible for the management to pay equal attention to all of them. The senior management will have to then concentrate on those capabilities that lie at the centre called core, rather than those on the periphery. How do you consider a competence as coreZeroing in on the core
Firstly, when the competence makes a disproportionate contribution to a customer perceived value, try asking what are the value elements in the product or service. Find out what the customer is really paying for. Find out which value elements are most important to the customer. Use this to make the biggest contribution to price realisation. Competing for air space, Air Deccan the first low cost airline model in India has developed its core competencies around a customer-friendly 24/7/365-reservation model, managing a high aircraft utilisation rate and sustaining a low cost air-travel business model. Its unique value proposition to a customer is not only literally bringing the convenience of ticketing to the latters drawing rooms but also in offering affordable, reliable and safe air travel. Providing its customer with ticket costs that are almost half that of the other airlines is by far its biggest value proposition to the customer. By developing competencies to constantly lower fares and provide value-added services, it can stay ahead of any future competition. In case of MKL, the price reductions passed on to their customers made a huge contribution to customer perceived value. Secondly, the capability must be competitively unique. If a capability is easily duplicatable by a competitor it is difficult to call it core. Although all carshave power trains, at Honda it has been its core competence. A core competence is truly core when it forms the basis of entry into new product markets. When you drive a Honda you will experience superior fuel economy, zippy acceleration, less noise and vibration. Honda has leveraged this competence to enter the aerospace industry. Its entry vehicle is the HF 118 turbofan jet engine for small business planes. Honda jet is now being tested in Japan. Through a strategic competence partnership with GE, it will enter the American market and compete with Pratt and Whitney PW 600 engines, which are presently outside of GEs manufacturing range. GE is acquiring Hondas competencies through this alliance for affordability, reliability and fuel efficiency. At MKL, its competencies with different materials, short product development cycles and in precision engineering led to extension of product markets, and its competencies in processes led to the development of new products and markets. Hence, extendibility is the third ingredient to considering a competence as not a vertical integration. Nobody has made a suggestion that in core competence you have to do everything in-house.Risks to avoid
One must view a company as a portfolio of competencies as much as one views it with its products and services. There are many risks of ignoring core competencies. The opportunities for growth will needlessly get reduced In a machine manufacturing company, one unit developed a new product that had new value proposition to its customers. It needed competencies in technology areas that existed in the other unit. There was no way the unit could depend on borrowing those competencies and had to rapidly develop its own. In case of multiple units company, when an opportunity is sighted, if the required competencies to respond are in another unit, there may be no way to redeploy people to another unit if unit managers are protective about their people As companies fragment into smaller business units, the business-unit boundaries may make it difficult to apply competencies across borders Lack of core competence can desensitise a company in many different ways. If you hurry to maximise brand share, you may succumb to rent a competitors competencies rather than invest in building your own – a dangerous shortcut Typically in India, CNC machine manufacturers have heavily focussed on the end product. Consequently, they have not invested adequately in acquiring new core competencies such as developing the electronics that willIs it same as competitive advantage
Although core competence is an asset, it is not in the accounting sense. Skills are often mistaken for competence. HLLs millions of retail outlets is not its core competence. Wal-Marts logistics is its core competence. An aptitude to manage a factory, how much big, is not core competence. Toyotas lean manufacturing is its core competence. Competencies do not wear out. Core competence may lose value over time. But the more it is used the more refined it gets becoming more valuable (eg, lean manufacturing). Competitive advantage is not a core competence, but a core competence is a competitive advantage. Similarly, a critical success factor is not a core competence, but a core competence can be a critical success factor. Core competence is a developed aptitude. It is often heard, ability to make good castings is our core competence or our backward integration – having our own foundry is our core competence or to provide manufacturing solutions is our core competence. It is important to distinguish between core competence and other forms of competitive advantage. Core competenceINDUSTRY WATCH – MODERN MACHINE TOOLS ? o c t o b e r 2 0 0 471 m a n a g e m e n tcontrol the machine or its software. The competency supplier can supply this borrowed competence to any competitor Investment in new core competencies provides the seeds for tomorrows product harvest. If you fail to understand the core competence basis for competition in your industry, new entrants may surprise you in your business Companies that are insensitive to the issue of core competencies may relinquish valuable skills and thereby the markets by selling or closing part businesses. A leading machinery manufacturer, inspite of and in stark contrast to an exemplary and successful BPR & turnaround display, later probably chose to restructure the re-engineered business. Its decision to close and relocate a profit-making unit that had grown in sales by almost 500% in recent years, resulted in relinquishing valuable skills, skills that did not exist in the new location. Insensitiveness to the issue of core competencies resulted in losing it businessquality machines on a fast flow rate matching the demand behaviour. When it tried to do this in the other units without borrowing the competence across the units, it failed to succeed. Although it had people with skills, the competence velocity was very low to redeploy those behind new market opportunities. The mobility of competency is aided when frequent meets to exchange ideas take place. The Kirloskar Group had the unique concept of functional committees across companies in various disciplines such as exports, manufacturing, and foundry etc, to ensure there was mobility of competencies between group companies. When minds are closed and not open to accepting ideas, theagainst rivals and building a corporate community who view themselves as carriers of corporate core competencies.Strategic repositioning
In the quest for competitiveness, restructuring the portfolio and downsizing the head count will make the company smaller, re-engineering processes and continuous improvement will make it better. However, regenerating the strategies and reinventing the industry will make the company different. MKLs unit at Hubli was a market leader and Indias largest exporter of machine tools for many long years to first world countries. But its leadership was not permanent; it learned that compelling forces required the company to change radically in the ways it dealt with its customers, competition and change. And the last decade saw it demonstrate how an industry can rise to a leadership position by regenerating core strategies, competing, building new core competencies, and going beyond reengineering (refer X-Engineering – Modern Machine Tools, July 2004). It was a classic example of reinventing the industry. Hence, it can be said that there is no such thing as permanent leadership; it simply has to be reinvented again and again. Toyotas consistency with its core competence in lean manufacturing has steadily made it a leader. For decades, it has stayed focussed on developing the competency and improving it continuously. Whats your core competence Would you rather build than downsize Do you want organic growth or are happy with deal making Do you want to re-engineer your processes or would you rather have an industry definition Do you dream of the long-term possibility or the short-term feasibility Would you like to be leveraging resources or allocating them The answer lies in adopting the core competence route. ?
Sanjeev Baitmangalkar is the CEO of Stratmann Consulting, a management and strategy consulting company. He has worked as a VP & SBU Head with the Kirloskar Group, and nurtured the multi product businesses as Director & CEO with the Texmaco Group in South East Asia. He has authored various articles on management, strategy, leadership, etc with case studies. E-mail: [email protected] it right
Managing core competencies in a firm should be the aim of the general management. It should not be entirely left to the technical guys, because the concept must not be jeopardised in building new businesses. Core competencies can best be defined for a firm, if teams work on identifying the competencies. It must be the result of a series of meetings, debates (heated is OK), disagreements, unexpected insights, an excitement about future potential and new opportunities. The process is aimed at a wide and deeper understanding of the skills that currently make the firm successful, and go beyond the served markets to new businesses. It also becomes sensitive to the existence of competition for competencies. Competence is the companys most valuable resource.advantages that can be gained by sharing competencies will be lost. Core competencies must be leveraged across business units as and when required. The companies that are good at this get greater effective use of their competencies.Implementation issues
Many companies wrongly give their chief financial officer more raw powers than the heads of their divisions or human resources department, while it should be the other way round. Competition for competence is the highest order of competitive rivalry; therefore access to competencies is a more critical driver of growth than access to cash. Core competence can be lost in many ways – wrongly divesting a performing unit, fragmented through divisionalisation, lack of funding, incompetent stewardship, etc. Core competencies need to be protected from erosion with vigour. Regular core competence reviews will help in focussing on levels of investment, plans to strengthen skills and technologies, outsourcing decisions, alliances, internal deployment, developing a strategic architecture, competence acquisition goals, defining business development priorities, allocation of core competence resources, benchmarking competence building effortsKey factors
Stability of the senior management teams and its strategic agenda are key factors in building new competencies. Consistent efforts and a consensus agenda will also play an important role. In a multi-unit machine building business, there was competence in one of the units to build consistent high72INDUSTRY WATCH – MODERN MACHINE TOOLS ? o c t o b e r 2 0 0 4

How Shakespeare Presents Women in Macbeth and Much Ado About Nothing

Macbeth and Much Ado About Nothing are two of Shakespeare??™s most famous plays. In this essay, I will explore the way in which Shakespeare presents the women in these two plays. In Shakespeare??™s time, it was usual for authors to write plays which would please the Monarchs of that period. This is apparent in both plays, particularly Much Ado About Nothing, as there are distinct similarities between the character Beatrice and Queen Elizabeth, who ruled at the time. She was a strong willed, opinionated woman who never married, which coincides with Beatrice??™s character, as she also swears that she will never marry and is a witty, headstrong woman; very much ahead of her time.
Macbeth was also clearly written with England??™s ruler in mind, this time King James the 1st, due to its??™ strong links with Scotland, Witchcraft and the succession of the throne. James was the first king to rule both England and Scotland, so setting the play in his home country would have surely appealed to him. He also had a great interest in the supernatural, particularly witchcraft, and had even written a book; Demonology, on the subject. As was the case with most monarchs of that age, he believed in the divine right of kings, so the concept of a man who became king without being appointed by God getting his comeuppance for his treasonous deeds would have been a very relevant one.
Throughout Shakespeare??™s life, society was obsessed with witchcraft and occult practices, which resulted in the torture and execution of hundreds of innocent people (nearly all of them women). Many women were put on trial for committing acts of regicide using spells and curses, and Shakespeare used this fear of witches??™ power in Macbeth to make it appeal more to the general public. He incorporated many features of witchcraft into the play; Lady Macbeth invites spirits to enter her body in Act 1 Scene 5, to give her enough cruelty to commit the deed, saying ???Come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here???. Also, Macbeth experiences an inability to pray, when he tells his wife ???I had most need of blessing and ???Amen??™ stuck in my throat. Other features include trances and visions, disturbed behaviour and an indifference to life; things which were strongly associated with witchcraft.
This was an age long before equal rights for each gender, and women were seen as second class citizens and were expected to serve and obey their husbands. The character Hero in Much Ado About Nothing is an example of the way women were expected to behave, accepting the decisions of others and being well-mannered and submissive. She would have appealed to the audience of that time, as a model for correct female conduct. The plotlines of the two plays are very dissimilar from each other, caused mainly by the fact that one is a tragedy, and the other is a comedy. Macbeth focuses on the psychological state of the characters and is mainly based on the idea of retribution; that crime doesn??™t pay in the end. On the other hand, Much Ado About Nothing is based very much around Love and deception, and concludes with a happy resolution.
Macbeth begins just after a battle has ended, in which Macbeth has demonstrated his bravery and valiance. He and his comrade Banquo then come across three witches who make predictions; that Macbeth will be the Thane of Cawdor as well as Glamis, and that he will be king. They also predict that the heirs of Banquo will become kings. Macbeth is made Thane of Cawdor, and this is followed by Lady Macbeth plotting with her husband and trying to persuade him to kill King Duncan, making the rest of the prophecy come true. He then murders the king and rises to the throne when Malcom and Donaldbain flee the country. Macbeth then kills his friend Banquo to stop his line ever entering the succession, but Banquo??™s ghost appears at the banquet, and his mind begins to unravel. He then returns to the witches to find out more, and they tell him that none of woman born can kill him, and that He will not fall till Bernam Wood comes to Dunsinaine. He then sends murderers to Macduff??™s castle who kill his wife and children. This prompts Macduff and Malcom to try and overthrow him, and they plot to attack. Meanwhile, Lady Macbeth has become insane and sleepwalks, talking about the deeds her husband has committed and trying to rid her hands of the blood she sees there. Finally, Malcolm??™s troops arrive at Dunsinaine, but camouflage themselves with branches from the wood, creating the illusion that the wood itself is approaching the castle. Macduff and Macbeth fight, but Macbeth thinks he cannot be killed, for all men are born of women. It is then revealed that Macduff is not of woman born as his mother had a caesarean section. He finally slays Macbeth, and Malcom is crowned King.
The story of Much Ado About Nothing is a much more light hearted play, focussing on the love affairs of two couples; Claudio and Hero, and Benedick and Beatrice. The tale begins in a similar way to Macbeth, when Don Pedro and his troops return victorious from battle. Beatrice and Benedick have a ???merry war of wit???, and Claudio speaks of his love for Hero. Leonato is then told a false rumour about Don Pedro??™s intensions towards his daughter, Hero. Meanwhile, Don Pedro??™s illegitimate half brother Don John is planning mischief. There is a masked ball, in which Benedick is teased by Beatrice, and Don Pedro woos Hero on Claudio??™s behalf. Don John tricks him briefly into thinking that Don Pedro woos her for himself, but he is soon corrected and he and Hero are betrothed. Don Pedro then devises a plan to bring Beatrice and Benedick together. Borachio and Don John invent a scheme to make Hero appear unchaste, and Benedick is tricked into thinking that Beatrice loves him. Likewise, Beatrice is tricked into believing that Benedick loves her. Both Don Pedro and Claudio are deceived by Don John??™s slander of Hero, but the watchmen arrest Borachio and Conrad after they confess to their part in the trickery. Hero prepares for the wedding, but Leonato is too busy to listen to the report about the arrest. The wedding comes, but Claudio denounces Hero, still believing that she has committed acts of infidelity. Friar Francis comes to her aid, and a plan is made to conceal Hero and tell everyone that she has died of grief. Benedick and Beatrice find that they are in love with each other, but she is distressed by the supposed death of her cousin and wants Benedick to avenge her by killing Claudio. Before more damage can be done, Borachio confesses all about the plot with Don John, and Claudio visits her tomb in repentance, still believing her to be dead. He is told that Hero has a cousin who resembles her closely, and that he can marry her if he wishes. He agrees to this, but at the wedding it is revealed that it is Hero herself, who is still alive. The deception surrounding Beatrice and Benedick is also revealed, but they realise that they are truly in love. The story ends thus, both couples happy and content.
The plays do share one similar theme; that good triumphs over evil. Macbeth receives retribution for his murderous deeds and is overthrown, in the same way that Don John??™s plots to wreak havoc and unhappiness are thwarted. Shakespeare uses many linguistic devices in both Macbeth and Much Ado about nothing. There are many examples of metaphors in Macbeth, such as the part in which Lady Macbeth is instructing her husband on how he should commit the deed, and tells him ??? Your hand, your tongue; look like th??™ innocent flower, but be the serpent under??™t.??? She is telling him that although he must seem like a gracious host, he must also be cold and deadly, acting like a vicious snake. It also bears some religious connotations; the snake in the Garden of Eden tempted Eve to commit the sin of eating the forbidden fruit, much in the same way that Lady Macbeth is tempting her husband to commit the sin of murder. This metaphor also bears reference to the gunpowder plot, an attempt to blow up parliament on the 5th of November 1605. To commemorate the discovery of the heinous scheme, King James had a medal created picturing a serpent hiding amongst flowers. To the king and the audience at that time the link would have been clear; Shakespeare was likening the act of treason against King Duncan to the act of treason against King James.
Metaphors are also used frequently in Much Ado About Nothing, for example in Act 1 Scene 1 Beatrice is arguing with the messenger about Benedick, and describes him as a contagious disease, saying ???he is sooner caught than the pestilence, and the taker runs presently mad???. She is implying that he will not be a good friend to Claudio, and that he would struggle to be ???cured??™ of him. By the end of the play she too has caught ???the Benedick??™ despite her scornful remarks, and her saying that she will never run mad, ???No, not till a hot January???.
In these examples, Shakespeare presents the women involved as being two faced and fickle. Lady Macbeth demonstrates this through her ability to seem harmless, but to be actually a dangerous villain like the serpent, by encouraging her once noble and virtuous husband to commit deeds of treason and villainy. Beatrice??™s inconsistent principles show us this side of her character, as she insists that she will never fall in love with Benedick, but ends up doing just that. Another device Shakespeare uses frequently in Much Ado About Nothing is extended Metaphor. There are several examples of this technique during the ???merry war of wit??™ between Beatrice and Benedick in Act 1 Scene 1. He calls her a ???rare parrot teacher???, implying that she can only repeat things that other people say, like a trained parrot, to which Beatrice retorts ???A bird of my tongue is better than a beast of yours???. She is continuing the bird themed metaphor, saying that her talking parrot is better than his dumb beast.
At the end of their argument, Benedick says ???I would my horse had the speed of your tongue, and so good a continuer???, meaning he would like his horse to be able to run at the speed of her tongue and with the same endurance. When Benedick says he has had enough of their quarrel, Beatrice then replies ???You always end with a jade??™s trick???, likening him to a stubborn horse refusing to go on, thus extending the horse metaphor.
Through these extended metaphors, Shakespeare is showing the audience how Beatrice always wants to have the last word in an argument , and that whatever insult Benedick uses, she wants to twist it to her advantage to stay one step ahead of them. In both plays, Shakespeare uses semantic fields to make links with other topics. For example, the characters in Macbeth often make references to inclement weather. This is especially apparent in Act 1 Scene 1, in which the witches plan to meet ???in thunder, lightning, or in rain???, and refer to as ship as being ???tempest tossed???. Lady Macbeth also uses this theme when she is talking about a dark, foggy night which would conceal the crime. Witchcraft and bad weather were thought to be directly linked, so Shakespeare may be trying to liken Lady Macbeth to a witch through this semantic field.
In Much Ado About Nothing, a Navy based semantic field is created in Act 2 Scene 1, when Beatrice is mocking Benedick at the masked ball. She uses terms out of context such as ???fleet??? and ???boarded???. The play was written shortly after the defeat of the Spanish Armada, and so at this time England??™s Navy was very popular and had positive connotations in society. This adds to the feel good-factor of the play, by reminding people of the Navy??™s success.
Shakespeare is using these semantic fields to make references to the popular topics of the time; witchcraft, through the semantic field of bad weather, and the victory against the Spanish Armada through the semantic field of the Navy. These references would have made the plays more appealing to the audience of the day, who would have been fascinated by these themes.