Month: April 2017

How the Conch Is Used as a Symbol in Lord of the Flies

The Conch is a main symbol in Lord of the Flies in William Golding??™s novel. One of Goldings main techniques for presenting his dramatic conflict involves the use of symbols. Lord of the Flies is a highly symbolic novel, and many of its symbols are eagerly interpreted. The conch in Lord of the Flies, symbolizes order, rules, authority, and civilization.
In the novel Piggy finds the conch and tells Ralph that he should blow into it to make a loud sound.” Its a shell! I seen one like that before, A conch he called it. At this point the conch was introduced first . As a main detail it is important to the story because Ralph uses it to call all the other boys on the island to meetings. Because of the conch rules are made and Ralph becomes the leader. He tries to be a democratic leader, listening to the concerns of all the fears of the littleuns, watching out for the good, building and maintaining the fire, and protecting them by building shelters.
The first rule the boys made was “who ever holds the conch gets to speak.” (p.16) The best thing is to have rules, because without rules nobody knows what to do. People do what they feel like doing and that can bring serious consequences. Through the novel Golding represents civilization as including the valuing of beauty, and the conch is beautiful. If the conch were destroyed there would be confusion, no rules, no leadership, and chaos.
Ralph represents order, leadership and ultimately civilization, just like the conch. Ralph also uses the conch to pull the boys together. “We can use this to call the others. Have a meeting. Theyll come when they hear us.” (p. 16) At this point the conch begins to take on more meaning as a symbol. The conch begins to represent community and cooperation. The shell governs the boys on the island and gives the meetings order, since the boy who holds it gets to speak. So the conch symbolizes democratic way of functioning, and a democratic society.
“The conch is gone, see See Thats what youll get! I meant that! There isnt a tribe for you anymore.” (p.181) The rock that Roger rolls onto Piggy also crushes the conch shell, telling the end of the civilized nature among all the boys on the island but Ralph. “There was no Piggy to talk sense. There was no solemn assembly for debate nor dignity of the conch.” (p.196) In these final appearances of the conch in the book we realize that civilization is gone.
The conch plays a key role in this theme because it symbolizes not only to the power to speak during assembly but also the power of order and speech itself. As long as the conchs symbolic power remained alive to the boys, there was hope that they could still be rescued. The boys respected the conch until all the democratic authority on the island was gone. Ralph was left by himself, with no tribe and no Piggy to support him. Golding shows how civilization on the island breaks down and chaos ensues.

How the Adversarial System Works in Our Courts

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How the Adversarial system works in our courtsDuring todays tutorial the topic of Adversarial System came up and im going to discusse what is the Adversarial system and the advantages and disadvantages of useing this kind of system. Firstly what is Adversarial System, Adversarial system (or adversary system) is a mode of dispute resolution in which the competing claims of parties to a dispute are presented, usually by legal representatives who have no interest in the outcome of the dispute, an authoritative determination. to an impartial and disinterested third party with the power to impose.In an adversary system both sides are allowed to present evidence and witnesses to support their case. The opposing side can cross examine witnesses, look at the evidence independently, and challenge arguments made in the court. The goal of this process is to present all of the facts of the case for the benefit of the judge and jury, who can look at the evidence to decide what happened and who, if anyone, should be held responsible. One of the advantages of useing this system is that the judge gets a more fuller view of the case that is in front of him and the situation of the case, where one of the biggest disadvantages is that it can also encourages deception and a variety of questionable legal tactics because there goal is to win at all costs and sometime looks like who ever has the most money will win. [word count: 246]1. Peter Butt (ed) Butterworths Concise Australian Legal Dictionary (3 rd ed, 2004) 15.

Corporate Accountability

Abstract
This paper examines the case based on corporate accountability focusing on ethical issues in business. For this purpose in this paper it is discussed that some changes are to be made to the some structure in the way organizations do business. Some include social and environmental responsibilities being put on leaders to balance the current responsibilities on financial issues, and the rights for local groups to obtain payment in the process they have suffered because leaders were unable to live up to those responsibilities. Lastly, this paper will explain in some detail in which the fundamental standards and elements of these processes would be reversed and made to operate in the same legal authority. After it was established in 1971,
Friends of the Earth??™s first campaigned was a large size ???bottle-drop??? outside the offices of Schweppes which was a symbol of protesting. (Bendell 2003).
Corporate Accountability
Accountability of corporation can be characterised as the proficiency of people influenced by a company to command the operations of corporation. These encompass ecological and communal obligations being put on controllers to counterbalance their living obligations on economic affairs and lawful privileges for localized groups to request reimbursement when they have endured as an outcome of controllers falling short to support those responsibilities. Human privileges, development and ecological organizations, progressive believe containers and some of the well informed parts of corporate also believe the notion of accountability of corporation. Instead of advising businesses to willingly give an explanation of their undertakings and influences, and also willingly advancing communal and ecological presentation (if it furthermore occurs to make enterprise sense), the corporate accountability ???movement??? accepts as factual companies should be ???held to account??? implying enforceability1(Regulation 2004). In past years, Friends of the Earth and other interest group assemblies have battled so many crusades contrary to businesses over exact issues. Businesses have been compelled to leave behind designs to construct streets, docks, mines, dams and pipelines in defended localities everywhere in the world. Campaigners affected some high road banks into resentment evolving some restricted know-how in ecological affairs after it has been revealed how investors had been unintentionally supporting rainforest clearance financially, human privileges misuses and contaminating industries. There have been gentle pleading to some organizations or businesses to remove from petition assemblies set up expressly to halt authorities from taking activity on weather change.Buyer crusades have convinced a whole lot of buyers to purchase remade paper, peat-free compost, organic coffee, tea, GM-free nourishment, timber that has been declared as capable by the Forest. The contention brought forth by the CBI, and otters, is that consumerism and CSR have been thriving that more restrictions set about don??™t seem important; the answer to ecological difficulties is free enterprise. Some, encompassing Ministers, are apparently very happy with this liberal method of operating that NGOs have been thanked for portraying as the ???whistleblowers and enforcers???3 and advised us to extend with our good work. (CSR 2004)Discussion of Topic
Ethical Consumer
The restrictions to green consumerism should be easily perceived. Greener goods are some times costly and sometimes comprise a focused market in evaluation to those goods that are only made at a reduced cost. A more basic restriction is the most passionate, the most nurturing, and the most abundant green buyer, will not ever have sufficient information to purchase ethically all the time. The mean shopping center comprises thousands of merchandise. Social and ecological matters are at all time convoluted and energetic (CORE 2004). How can this probably anticipate buyers to discover all of the newest expansion and at the same time work out for them what it signifies for their buying basket – in today??™s world most people are progressively time poor How can an individual buyer presumed to refuse to do business ??“ for example an excavation business ??“ which may be engaged in providing string of connections of millions of goods but the emblem is not on any Suppose one can??™t fine the type of goods that is being required to buyCSR and Voluntary Initiatives, CSR engages organization??™s willingly selecting to advance communal and ecological measures and to decrease the contradictory influences on the environment. CSR has gladly been taken up by enterprise and managers as a large achievement in the direction of long-term development ??“ yet than still the answer is not well define?????¦there are few situations where [vol. initiatives] have assisted ecological improvements and distinct from what would have occurred anyway??? OECD (2003) Voluntary Approaches for Environmental Policy (World Summit 2002). The restrictions of corporate social responsibility should furthermore be conspicuous ??“ and most importantly, it is a willing unregulated process. There will never be sufficient nongovernmental organization capability to control the corporate world and at same time run productive, motivating crusades to contradict all the kind of corporate misconduct. The majority of people let solely the newspapers, will not ever have the time or feeling for that amount of campaigns (Stephen 2002). What about the number of businesses that are not emblem perceptive, either because they are too expert, or they deal goods and services to other enterprises, and not the public in general What about other businesses that glimpse corporate social responsibility as some other kind of PR 4. Just 3% are actually describing the ecological and communal influences ??“ and if this happens to really converts to genuine change is another question. More significantly, such an aim on the buyer and on the one-by-one business disregards the genuine matters of communal and ecological justice.
Corporate Accountability
From a corporate accountability viewpoint, ethical consumerism and voluntary CSR locates an aim on the buyer and on the one-by-one business (established basically in the global
North) and disregards the genuine matters of communal and ecological fairness for groups (often established in the international South). Is it fair for employees on banana farms to bear if, really, the most of western buyers conclude that having a bargain banana is significant to them than having an equitably swapped banana Is it fair for western authorities to relax and manage nothing while the original groups get shoved off their land and rain forests unblocked to make bargain palm oil for other market (supermarket) Is it fair for communal including ecological anxieties to be disregarded in attenuating components where speaking to them does not make short-term enterprise sense Is it fair for authorities to submit duties to rule, and rely rather than on the free market and NGOs (Bendell 2003).
When humanity determined it was time to prevail current widespread measures on well being and security, worker or buyer defence was carry out by means of alterations to the lawful structure in which businesses perform. Business provided controller??™s new lawful obligations and provided workers and buyer??™s privileges that permitted them to contain businesses and controllers to give account if they failed to support those responsibilities (World Summit 2002). As humanity, there are grave about long-term development, communal and ecological fairness, so the time has certainly arrived to mainstream widespread measures on communal and ecological performance. The way to manage it is by means of matching alterations to the lawful structure that would permit the public to contain companies to give an explanation for communal and ecological misconduct (Regulation 2004). In the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development (usually refer to as the ???Johannesburg Earth Summit???), Friends of the Earth International (FOEI) wrote that FOEI is the world??™s biggest grassroots administration, with constituent assemblies in 69 nations in the world. The suggestion evolved engaging assemblies founded in the international north, south, east and west would need signatory authorities to:1Responsibilities: enforce obligations on openly swapped businesses, controllers and board grade agents to: report completely on the communal and ecological influences, o important dangers and on breaks of applicable measures (such accounts to be individually clarified); double-check former productive discussions with influenced groups, encompassing the ground work of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) for an important undertakings and full open access to all applicable documents; and take contradictory communal and ecological influences of their undertakings completely into account Corporate conclusions making (Regulation 2004). 2. Liability: Expand lawful obligation to controllers for corporate breaks of nationwide communal and ecological regulations, and to controllers and companies of corporate breaks of worldwide regulations or affirmations (Stephen 2002). 3. Rights of grievances: Guarantee lawful privileges of grievance for people and groups badly influenced by Corporate undertakings, including: getting access to influenced people in any location in the world and legal action where original companies assertion a ???home??™, are domiciled, or listed; a stipulation for lawful dispute to business conclusions by those with a concern, a lawful help means to supply public capital to support such trials (Stephen 2002). 4. Rights to resources: Establish human and community privileges to get means to and command over the assets required to relish a wholesome and long-term life, encompassing fairness; over widespread house assets and international commons. For example, timber plantations, water, fisheries, and genetic asset; to have a discussion and veto over corporate tasks, contrary to dislocation; the reimbursement for asset deprived by or for companies. 5. Introduce sanctions: form a nationwide lawful provision for all rules and regulations for businesses that break any of these obligations, liability and privileges such as: baring nationwide supply exchange listing; withdrawing access from such businesses of getting public grants, assurances, borrowings or any other business contracts; and in farthest situations the departure of restricted liability rank (Regulation 2004). 6. Expand the function of the International Criminal Court to trial controllers and companies for communal, ecological and human privileges misdeeds, possibly engaging an exceptional tribunal for ecological misuses (Regulation 2004). 7. Improve worldwide concept of many buyers but one seller system of business and controls over amalgamations and monopolistic demeanour by companies. 8. Execution mechanism: Form a long term method to supervise and reconsider the execution and quality of the convention (Regulation 2004). FOEI did not anticipate the Johannesburg Summit to outcome in a clear affirmation to evolve a worldwide conference, let solely acquiesce on the contents. This paper contained some minutia on how such suggestion can work in practice6; it was not a preliminary convention (World Summit 2002). The reason of this suggestion was to provoke argument round the likely answers to corporate misconduct, and to encourage a south agenda round community privileges is against the north corporate agenda on voluntary ciphers to perform, and to turn around a fixed point away from corporate voluntarism in the direction of corporate accountability (World Summit 2002). Call for the accountability of corporation became a serious call for natural environment, human privileges, and development and work organizations in the Johannesburg summit. Leaders took a clear lesson and made a firm promise at the gathering to evolve different structures and strategies. This was summed up in the Final Plan of action which documented that an ???urgent plan of action??? was needed ???at all levels??? to: Actively encourage corporate blame and responsibility, founded on the Rio Principles, encompassing by means of a full development and productive execution of intergovernmental affirmations and assesses, worldwide plans and public-private partnerships, and befitting nationwide guidelines, and to support relentless enhancement in corporate behaviours in every part of the world (CSR 2004). The CORE set comprises a nature base for CSR, not a statutory strait-jacket and businesses that are authentic about advancing the communal and ecological presentation would have all to gain and nothing to lose (CORE 2004).
Conclusion and Recommendation
The calls for a means to consign the accountability of corporation will extend the augment as the clues intensified that voluntary CSR is falling short to consign the alterations that are required to consign long-term development, communal and ecological freedom.
The accountability of corporate action is still a distance away from achieving all the responses, but has arrive a long way in a short period. In years to come, the argument and the crusades will increase. It is now time for political parties; political leaders and authorities to connect this argument and assist evolve the principles and means that will make companies fit for the next generations to come.
ReferencesA recent job advert for a CSR post at Virgin Group specified that knowledge and experience of marketing and PR was ???essential???. 2004 In contrast, knowledge of social and environmental issues was not even mentioned. (Advert issued March).
Bendell (2003) ???Corporate Accountability and International Regulation of Tics???, Presentation summarise in Conference News ??“ Corporate Social Responsibility and Development: Towards a New Agenda Report of the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) Conference 17-18 November 2003, Geneva.
Corporate Social Responsibility and Business Regulation UNRISD Research and Policy Brief 1 www.unrisd.org
The Corporate Responsibility Coalition (CORE) is a broad grouping of over 100 UK based environment, human rights and development organisations, think tanks and trade unions including Action Aid, Amicus, Amnesty International (UK), CAFOD, Christian Aid, Friends of the Earth, Save the Children, New Economics Foundation (NEF), T&G Union, Tradecraft, Unison and Unity Trust Bank.
The Green 8 consists of; Birdlife International, The Climate Action Network Europe, European Environment Bureau, Friends of the Earth Europe, Friends of Nature, Greenpeace European Towards Binding Corporate Accountability, Friends of the Earth International briefing paper. Available at www.foei.org World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) Plan of Implementation 2002.
UK Environmental Regulation 2004, CBI July Stephen Tim??™s, 2002 UK Government Minister for Corporate Social Responsibility in speech to WWF fringe meeting at Labour Party Conference. Unit, Transport and Environment, WWF European Policy Office.

How Temperature Effects Water

The goal of this experiment is to see if the water level in a can affects the time it takes the water to flow from a hole in the bottom of a can. In order to perform this experiment I made a chart with the following categories: Seconds, Experimental Height and Theoretical Height. Then I nailed a hole in the bottom of a coffee can and filled it with water while I covered the bottom of the hole with my finger. I then put a ruler in the can and measured the initial height of the water in millimeters and recorded the data. I uncovered the hole and after ten seconds recovered it. Then re measured the new height of the remaining water. I repeated this till the water was almost gone. After the water can was empty I measured the diameter of the bottom of the can and the diameter of the hole. I substituted my data into the formula (vh / o ??“ 70d ? /D ? t) ?. h/o is the initial height of the water which is 90 mm. D is the diameter of the can which is 98 mm. and d is the diameter hole which 5 mm. t changes each time the equation is done because it stands for time. The differences between the theoretical and the experimental height could be how high the can was held, the diameter of the hole, the time between each entry. It was difficult get precise measurements because I couldn ??™ t tell exactly where the meniscus was. Next time it might benefit me to use a graduated cylinder or a clear container instead of a coffee can.

Corporal Punishment

The idiom seeing is believing refers to the idea that only concrete or physical evidence is the only convincing factor. This belief goes against the idea of corporal punishment which refers to the use of physical force causing pain, but not wounds, as a means of discipline(“Educate, dont punish,” 2011). The key factors for and against this form of punishment is the old age argument that if you cannot see the wound then it must not be occurring. In cases as such, one must examine the factors that distinguish corporal punishment from physical abuse. The first of the two indicators includeintensity orthe extent to which injuries have resulted from the use of violence and intention or the extent to which the intention is to teach/discipline. After examining the factors, I see corporal punishment leading tochild abuse, with no proven scientific study that it helps rear a child in the right direction, and it has been proven that it leaves a lasting negative affect on the psychological psyche of children into adulthood.
Corporal punishment only leads to batting or increase the chance of committing child abuse. Using corporal punishment as an instantaneous means of correction may inflict bodily injury which is now considered child abuse. There are no studies that show corporal punishment is effective in correcting misconduct, but ample amount of research show how it leads to an aggressive adulthood. Studies show that 36% of all women and 14% of all men in prison were physically punished as a child.( “Psychologists and spanking”) Evidence shows that corporal punishment lead to early teen pregnancies which also increase the risk of a sexual transmitted disease. Children who are held accountable by physical punishment create a pain tolerance over time and become angry toward the parent. What has caused the rebellion against authorities is lack of corporal discipline in the child formative years. Christians believe in the rod of corrections, saying that if you spare the rod you spoil the child. Corporal punishment is a correction option for parents when the child is misbehaving. Corporal punishment is the final means of correcting a child teaching the child that wrong doing will result in a painful consequence. Parents argue that children need a little fear of consequence for bad behavior. Fear breed respect; for it is necessary to teach boundaries, limits and responsibility to children.
There are no studies that show corporal punishment leading to a successful lifestyle. Studies show corporal punishment being the base of aggressiveness, and violent acts. Corporal punishment lowers self-esteem, and it teaches children to be victims. Corporal punishment doesn??™t make a child strong; rather it makes them prone to becoming repeat victims. Violence begets violence. Corporal punishment teaches children that violence is the answer to problems. Children grow out of being physically handle for unacceptable situation, and can turn to illegal substances to cope with the feeling of not being loved. Parents who use corporal punishment can accidently inflict injury on a child; the situation can get out of hand once a child become rebellious to corporal punishment. Spare the rod and spoil the child. It is believed that parents should raise a child up to be respectful adults. It is important that parents “cool off” first if they are angry before disciplining their children. The reasons for doing this go beyond the obvious one of not abusing them. The discipline and training is also much more effective when the child can plainly see that youre doing it out of love and not anger.By doing so, the child learn wrong doing will not be tolerated. Teaching a child responsibility coincide with holding a child accountable for their actions. Children who are abused out of anger are more prone to growing aggressive later in life; children who are chastised with reasoning turn out to be respectful adults.
There is also evidence that changes in parental disciplinary practices, specifically young children to bottle up their feelings of fear, anger, and hostility thus making changing from using corporal punishment to positive parenting, result in changes in them prone to depression and suicide in later years. Children but in the long run, it proves to be ineffective and pose great risks to the psychological and physical well-being of children. Corporal punishment teaches a child that it??™s ok for the strong pray on the weak. It sends a message to the child that violence is a viable option for solving problems whether it??™s relationships or family situations. Banning corporal punishment will also alleviate anti-social behavior in adulthood. Corporal punishment is able to bring immediate compliance to disobedient children. With that, the parent must teach the child the lesson that needs to be learned in the process. Parents who ???spank??? their kids for misbehaving, the child at the time may not understand why physical punishment was resorted to; so the parent must explain the severity of the child actions. Without corporal punishment, children will continue to act obscenely due to improper punishment. Time outs and confining a child to their room isn??™t an effective method for certain actions. Corporal punishment can also be looked at as a reference point for when the child gets a wild hair for doing something off color. The child can reflect back on the pain that was inflicted before, which will make the child think twice prior to misbehaving.
I have argued that corporal punishment isn??™t the best form of punishment. I have backed my claim with supportive evidence that corporal punishment have a lasting negative effect on children. Children deserve to be treated like human being that they are and not a piece of property. Parents need to choose a different more effective means of punishment when raising children.Reference
Anderson, K., & Anderson, D. (1976). “Psychologists and spanking”. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, Fall, 46-49. http://www.neverhitachild.org/areview.html
Educate, dont punish. (2011, 12 06). Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/lac/spbarbados/Implementation/CP/Global/Educate_donthit_SaveManual.pdf

How Technology and Urban Politics Contributed to the Development of American Cities Between 1865 and 1900

???How technology and urban politics contributed to the development of American cities between 1865 and 1900??? Between 1865 and 1900, industrialization caused significant changes in lives of American people. First, public transit systems in big cities provided a way out of jammed streets. Second, the discovery of a method for transmitting electricity helped to light up people??™s daily lives. Last, political parties in major cities came under the control of tightly organized group of politicians, who were making all the decisions and creating specific urban politics.
The development of new public transit systems was important in shaping the design of our cities and the growth of our cities by enabling people to move further away from the inner city. Early on, large cities had very little and inadequate transportation. Their main sources of transportation were horses drawn wagons and walking. As a result, most people lived or took housing near downtown, which was where most of the working establishments were located. This made the big cities very congested. However with the breakthrough of the ???el???, electric streetcars, and subways, around 1867, cities began to open up more. Those who were fortunate enough to move out of the slums and into better surrounding neighborhoods, did so. The more affluent of the white-collar classes moved into the suburban areas. In contrast, many of the very wealthy continued to live in city mansions. The new transit systems in most cities allowed people to escape the chaos of urban life and provided potential for growth of our cities.
Thomas Edison??™s discovery of electricity and a method of transmitting it, was significant in many ways. Due to this discovery, businesses could operate around the clock. We were no longer limited to the hours of daylight that the sun provided. Now, that cities were liberated from darkness people were able to be more productive, as well as businesses. Because electricity was supplied to homes and businesses, everyone was able to benefit from it.
Successful party bosses knew how to manage the competing social, ethnic, and economic groups in the city. In many cases, the political machines that they ran brought modern services to the city, including a crude form of welfare for urban newcomers. The political organization would find jobs and apartments for recently arrived immigrants and show up at a poor family??™s door with baskets of food during hard times. But the political machine could be greedy as well as generous and stole millions from taxpayers in the form of graft and fraud.
Due to industrialization, many changes were made in people??™s daily lives. First, work was no longer limited to daylight hours. Second, improvements of public transit systems in cities allowed us to live further away from the chaotic city. Finally, changes in urban politics altered and developed new society in the growing cities.

Corporal Punishment

By definition, punishment is a process whereby a consequence is added to a particular behaviour in an effort to weaken that behaviour (Huitt & Hummel, 1997). Corporal punishment in turn refers to actual physical punishment to correct behaviour. There are two main institutions within which children are disciplined, namely, the home and the school. Sociologists describe the home as the primary socializing agent as such the home expectedly has the most far reaching impact. The school, as a secondary socialization agent will either reinforce or de-emphasize those values taught within the home. One common feature between the home and the school is that in some cultures, corporal punishment is often utilized within the two with the hope that children will be better individuals. The issue of effective child rearing is a very important one it may be argued that for this to be achieved corporal punishment is needed to instill discipline in children. This discipline is based on the rule of consequences and these consequences include reinforcements and rewards which allow for introspection, this ideally results in better choices, not just in its immediacy but over the long term. It may be argued that by doing this children are given the freedom to choose actions and by extension their consequences. It is hoped that children will be smarter in their choices and thus have improved life chances. For the purposes of this paper, the impact of corporal punishment on children will be explored with the use of evidence based research, personal views will also be highlighted and recommendations provided.
The two main arenas in which children may receive corporal punishment are within the home and the school. The home for many can be described as the mitochondrion of wider society. It represents that entity which greatly moulds individuals, with the support of other such institutions. Values thought within the home have proven to be significant since the household is the first place where these are reinforced on a consistent basis. Persons are placed in wider society from this ???power house??™ and they impact the world with the values that they hold true. Like the home, society operates on principles of rewards and punishment and it may even be argued that consequences typically experienced in a stable home environment may well be less harsh when compared to those meted out in wider society.
Numerous social scientists have examined the effects of corporal punishment on children and the way corporal punishment is used as a technique to discipline children. It has been noted that the difference between abuse and discipline is unclear for many caregivers within the household, it is clear is that the desired outcome be known by the caregiver n order for corporal punishment to be effective. For some, it is difficult to draw conclusions about spanking when compared to abuse. Holden stated that in research on corporal punishment he has reviewed, parents may not be honest in their responses (Holden, 2002). Another interesting issue that may be emphasized is that at home ???spanking??™ is used in conjunction with other forms of discipline, indeed on may argue that this is often a last resort. Holden sees corporal punishment as reinforcement for other parenting techniques, he specifically described this as ???back up??™ intervention (Holden, 2002). Baurmrind highlighted the fact that corporal punishment often acts as a short-term parenting technique that sets out to alter noncompliance, this is done with the hope that non-corporal techniques can be used in the long-term (Baurmrind, 2002).
Within the school, corporal punishment serves a similar purpose as within the home, to correct misbehavior. It typically involves striking the student in a prescribed manner, normally across the buttocks or on the hands with a cane, paddle or strap (Student/Parent Information Guide and Code of Conduct 2008-2009). Proponents or corporal punishment in schools may articulate that it provides immediate response to discipline, this method is more advantageous as when compared to suspension since students are not taken out of the class setting for any extended period of time. In the past, corporal punishment was widely practiced in schools in many parts of the world, but in recent decades it has been outlawed in most of Europe and in Canada, Japan, South Africa, New Zealand. Corporal punishment remains popular in African and, Middle Eastern schools and s such necessitate discipline in children.
“Numerous human rights bodies??¦have made it clear that corporal punishment of children breaches childrens fundamental human rights to respect for their dignity and physical integrity. This reality provides an immediate imperative for ending the practice??¦??? This sentiment was expressed by Mieke Schuurman, Secretary General of the European Childrens Network, speaking at the launch of the Council of Europes initiative against corporal punishment of children – Zagreb, June 2008. Throughout history physical discipline has been a salient feature in many homes and schools across different societies. This however does not mean that the phenomenon is a necessity, accepted or even that beating children does more good than harm developmentally, especially from a behavioural standpoint. “Research into the harmful physical and psychological effects of corporal punishment, into the relative significance of links with other forms of violence, in childhood and later life, add further compelling arguments for condemning and ending the practice, suggesting that it is an essential strategy for reducing all forms of violence, in childhood and later life” (Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children). Another argument made against corporal punishments is that some research has shown it to be not as effective as positive means for managing student behaviour. These studies have linked corporal punishment to adverse physical, psychological and educational outcomes including, ???increased aggressive and destructive behaviour, increased disruptive classroom behaviour, vandalism, poor school achievement, poor attention span, increased drop-out rate, school avoidance and school phobia, low self-esteem, anxiety, somatic complaints, depression, suicide and retaliation against teacher??? (Poole et.al, 1991:162-7).
Support for the necessity of corporal punishment is significantly questioned by numerous international child welfare entities, these include American Medical Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Society for Adolescent Medicine, the American Psychological Association, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, the Royal College of Psychiatrists, the Canadian Paediatric Society and the Australian Psychological Society. School corporal punishment is also opposed by the (U.S.) National Association of Secondary School Principals. The provisions of the Convention of the Rights of the Child 1989 is also important for child punishment, as Article 19 states: ???Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation.???
In a survey conducted by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) on corporal punishment uncovered that use of corporal punishment was generally frowned upon by AAP pediatrician members. Findings demonstrated that roughly fifty-three percent of respondents generally oppose the use of corporal punishment by parents, but an occasional spanking under certain circumstances can be an effective form of discipline. Thirty-one percent completely oppose the use of corporal punishment by parents under any circumstances and only fourteen percent supported, in principle, the limited use of corporal punishment by parents. Less than two percent of pediatricians were unsure of opinion on the use of corporal punishment. Forty-two percent of persons recommended that corporal punishment be used only under limited circumstances and/or with specific conditions or rules.
As it relates to a personal standpoint regarding corporal punishment, I am a proponent of the view. My personal viewpoint has been strongly influenced by my upbringing within the household and the church I attended. I have observed possible linkages between how I was punished as a child and the possible effect it may have had in my current adult interactions. It should be noted that occasional spankings where necessary are warranted in my view. As a mother, I believe it is imperative that guardians not strike their wards out of anger but of a need to guide children into making wiser choices that will attract benefits to their overall life experiences. Certain values that were upheld within my household growing up, such as showing respect to elders and cleanliness were typically reinforced with physical punishment when rules were not followed.
In addition to my childhood home serving as a major influence, the church for me, being the basis of my moral consciousness, has tremendously impacted my personal view that corporal punishment is a necessity for the discipline of children. The bible, it may be recalled, has highlighted that corporal punishment is an acceptable form of punishment for children. Done out of love and within reason, corporal punishment is beneficial to the upbringing of young ones. The book of Proverbs offers five verses that explicitly mention the use of a rod to beat a child, in the biblical context the rod may refer to that which was used by shepherds to gently guide their sheep out of harm??™s way. This was not done to physically harm the animals but was a necessary act that limited the amount of harm that came to the sheep and ultimately extended its life. This is the view that I personally adopt as it concerns the raring of my own children, and up to this point the practice has apparently worked.
There are a variety of recommendations which may be, and have been offered with regard corporal punishment and its effect on children. Suggestions may typically advocate for the elimination of corporal punishment or its infusion with other disciplinary techniques. David Osher et. al. have outlined, examined three key ways in which improvement may be seen in student behavior and school discipline. Namely, school-wide positive behavioural supports, ecological approaches to classroom management and social and emotional learning. For Osher et.al. these approaches can be combinative or applied in singularly (Osher et.al, 2010:48-58). It is also recommended that positive, non-violent forms of child-rearing, education and conflict resolution among parents, caregivers and the greater public be encouraged. By doing this, a certain level of cohesion and functionality can be achieved, as such stable environments may be provided for children. Parents should seek, and be offered the necessary advice should they experience, or are experiencing difficulties with child-rearing, on the other hand, it should be ensured that facilities are in place for children who wish to confidentially access counseling and legal representation in response to violence against them. It is imperative that children are offered the opportunity to express their views and are actively involved in the eradication of corporal punishment, this will augment the efforts should it be decided that corporal punishment is un-necessary in disciplining of children.
The importance of protecting their rights and encouraging their overall mental and physical health cannot be over emphasized. Indeed, it widely accepted that disciplinary techniques are a needed component of the over process of child rearing, however, to say that corporal punishment is key to discipline leaves great room for disagreement. Corporal punishment??™s impact, largely negative, has been proven to be profound, however appropriate alternatives have been offered for all parties involved.
References
Baumrind, D., Larzelere, R. E., & Cowan, P. A. (2002). Ordinary Physical Punishment: Is It Harmful Comment on Gershoff Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 580-589
Gershoff, E. T. Corporal Punishment by Parents and Associated Child Behaviors and Experiences: A Meta-Analytic and Theoretical Review. Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 539-579
Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children: July, 2008. Retrieved [15/8/2010] from, http://www.politics.co.uk/briefings-guides/issue-briefs/education/corporal-punishment-$366656.htm
Holden, G. W. (2002). Perspectives on the Effects of Corporal Punishment: Comment on Gershoff Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 590-595
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (1997). An introduction to Operant (instrumental) Conditioning. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [19/8/2010] from, http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/behsys/operant.html
Osher, D., Bear, G.G., Sprague, J.R., Doyle, W. (2010). How Can We Improve School Discipline Educational Research, January 1; 39(1):48-58.
Poole, S.R., Ushkow, M.C, Nader, P.R, (1991). The Role of the Pediatrician in Abolishing Corporal Punishment in Schools. Pediatrics 88 (1) July: 162??“7.
Student/Parent Information Guide and Code of Conduct 2008-2009, Alexander City Schools, Alabama, USA, p.44.

How Tattoos Have Evolved

Thesis: Throughout history the function and the purpose of tattoos have changed from originally being a sign of status or medicinal reasons, and other reasons to the present day form of entertainment.The earliest record of tattoos dates back 5000 years. What is known today as the ???Ice Man??? was found in 1991. The scientists named him Otzi. According to where the markings were found it is seemed to be believed that the tattoos were used as some type of treatment for pain. In around 2000BC female dancers and girls that were known to be involved in prostitution were marked so people would know what they were.
As time went on the Ancient Romans didn??™t believe in having tattoos on the body because they thought it to be impure to the body. Except for the people that broke the law which were tattooed as a brand to show that they were criminals. After the 12th century tattooing kind of disappeared until the 18th century. By then tattoos became important to the people of the Islands. The women used them to show sexual maturity, mourning, and spirituality. These women usually used soot to make their tattoos. They wanted the markings to be dark or black. Other ancient cultures used yellow rather then the dark colors, such as the Inuit. The Nubians of south Egypt preferred the color blue. The tattoos that were used in these times were usually dots, dashes, lines and diamonds. The Russians about 2400 years ago were known for the tattoos in the form of animals. They were used for decoration only, but they also had symbols of status rank. Tattoos in Japan were first done on clay figures. These figures were shaped like humans that represented the dead. It was thought that these tattoos had religious or magical importance. This had been dated back to about 3000BC. The Horis which were known to be masters and eventually made the full body suit tattoo. In 297 AD first documented the body suit in Japan were put on men for decoration only. The men that wore this body suit were known for being in the gangster class. In 1769, the Islanders gave the west our modern term ???tattoo.??? These tattoos became popular with the European sailors and coalminers to show the danger in both of these professions. The sailors got anchor tattoos and the coalminers got lamp tattoos. The Europeans in the 1820??™s tattooed the heads of slaves and commoners that were captured. They sold tattooed heads of killed slaves until 1831 when the British made the importation of human heads illegal. The ancient Britons which were Romans were tattooed as a mark of high status. They tattooed the shapes of beasts. The Maori men of New Zealand considered the heads an important part of the body. The face which they thought to be the most important was tattooed with an elaborate tattoo. This was regarded as marks of the most highest status. Every tattoo was different; they contained specific status, rank, ancestry, and ability. They used sharp bones to chisel cuts into the face and then soot-based pigment that was tapped into the open wounds. The Maori women tattooed around their mouths and chins as a way of preventing wrinkles and did this until the early 1970??™s. In 1940 during the Holocaust concentration camp prisoners were tattooed with letters and numbers to identify them. Those numbers and letters were also used to identify the prisoners that were registered and died.
The earliest known instruments were a sharpened shell and sharpened bones. The first structured instruments were a set of hard wooden handled sharp point knives which were dated to 3000BC. Archaeologist W.M.F. Petrie at the side of Abydos discovered these knives and another set of bronze instruments c.1450BC. They resembled wide flattened needles. In1891the first tattoo machine was patented by a New York inventor Samuel O??™Reilly. Tattoos today are done very different. They are applied with a gun of many needles wrapped as one. The safety of today??™s tattoos is also very different. Today every needle has to be sterilized in an autoclave. It is very important to see an autoclave in the shop that you go to get a tattoo. This is just one sign that the shop is clean. Another way of telling if the shop is clean is that the tattooing machine is wrapped in plastic. And never just go and get a tattoo, make sure you research or go to the shop a day before you get your tattoo and watch the artist. If there is something that you don??™t like about what you see be sure to ask questions.
In the world of today tattoos are done for many different reasons. There are those that think the art is just beautiful, so they tattoo a lot of their body. Then you have those that want a tattoo as a reminder of a special or sad event. Tattooing now a days can be very extreme with things such as portraits of their families, body tattoos where the any part or the whole body is covered.
Franklin-Barbajosa, C. (2004) Tattoos: Pigments of Imagination. National Geographic Magazine, retrieved from http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0412/online_extra.html#top
Lineberry, C. (2007) Tattoos The Ancient and Mysterious History. Smithsonian.com, retrieved from http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/tattoo.htmlc=y&page=1
Baldwin, C. The History of Tattoos. retrieved from http://historyoftattoos.org
Rosenthal, G. The Evolution of Tattooing in Auschwitz Concentration Camp Complex. Jewish Virtual Library, retrieved from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/tattoos1.html

Corp Business Communications

Corporate Business Communications

University of Phoenix
COM/285 Business Communications
Sherry Johnson-Metz
Corporate Business Communications
Communication occupies up to 75% of every working day and can occur in verbal and nonverbal means (Fred Pryor, 2010). This paper will cover the role business communication plays in daily work activities and how it affects an individual??™s daily activities. This paper will also include trends in communication and the message types that result from these trends.
Communication is considered to be successful when a desired objective is attained. A successful organization uses various means of communication among all coworkers. Regardless of titles, job descriptions, or education, all members of an organization must communicate (Fred Pryor, 2010). Communication has multiple purposes, to inform, to influence, to express ones??™ viewpoint and to meet other social expectations. Communication is what unites all departments within an organization. Without good business communication the probability of an organization to have complications and failures is high. When communication is not shared among all the coworkers, then the company infrastructure starts to fail. When there is good, clear communication a stronger relationship between coworkers, subordinates, supervisor, peers, and customers develop. If someone looked closely enough into the communication processes within a corporation, he or she could see unsuccessful communication taking place in multiple areas.
Current trends in business communication are changing at fast rate. The rapid change in technology is a large component for the different media used in corporate communication. Focus on quality and the customers??™ needs, entrepreneurship, teamwork, diversity, globalization and outsourcing, legal and ethical concerns, balancing work and family, and job flexibility each individually determine the method of communication used (Locker & Kienzler, 2008).
Business communication media can also help to manage daily activities. An electronic calendar is a tool commonly used to schedule one??™s day, this tool can be shared among coworkers to schedule and confirm meetings. E-mail at my place of work is becoming a replacement for phone and face to face conversations. This media is a necessity to inform multiple coworkers of issues that need attention during a day it informs coworkers who work other shifts what has taken place with a particular issue. This benefits all the coworkers by keeping them informed with the knowledge of what has been done, needs to be done, or how to respond. E-mails within my company are composed of simple request for supplies, documentation, and research projects to complex customer interaction of contracts, requests for proposals, and sensitive information. Forwarded correspondence for customers or vendor to keep appropriate personnel apprised of a situation.
References

How Successfully Can We Measure Medical Progress in the Middle Ages

How successfully can we measure medical progress in the middle ages.
The middle ages were a period from the collapse of the Roman Empire to about 1400AD. The development of medicine both progressed and regressed and contributed prominently to historic events. Throughout this period, significant individuals arose and authorities and religions gained and lost power. Both the European and the Islamic world contributed to this. Due to Bad emperors, war, disunity and economic decline causing the fall of the Roman Empire, this impacted greatly on medicine. This period was controversially called the ???Dark Ages???
In the ???Dark ages??™, the education of doctors and the development of public health systems were disrupted. In Europe, the training of doctors was abandoned. This was mainly because amidst the war, copies of most important medical books, such as Galen??™s work, was destroyed, lost or hidden away for safe keeping. Surviving medical knowledge was mainly in the Muslim cities of the Middle East. Moreover, the new ???barbarian??™ rulers were vastly illiterate and uneducated and did not consider the education of doctors meaningful. Therefore, the only way in which people could to some extent be treated was to rely on ???folk medicine??™ which comprised of some herbal remedies but mainly superstitious treatment which was predominantly passed down by oral tradition. The individuals who supplied these treatments were the closest thing to a doctor in the ???Dark Ages??™. This overall change was a regress in Europe in the terms of the education of doctors. Things only started to progress after about 400 years later. Medical schools were starting to be set up in universities around the twelfth century. The oldest medical school in a university in Europe was founded in Salerno in 900AD. Other medical schools started to become popular like the Montpellier in France in 1200AD or Bongolia in Northern Italy. An early medical school was established in Salerno in south Italy which taught that careful observation of patients was essential and that cleanliness resulted in good health of the patient. Medical schools began to train doctors and ensured that they had qualifications before they become proper doctors. The work of Galen was re-taught after old manuscripts by Galen and other important writers were rediscovered and translated. This was a vast progress to the education of doctors. The teaching of students in these schools had students listening to the teach reading out a lecture which consisted of passages from Galen and other writers. This could also be seen as regress as it did not give students and firsthand experience into the human anatomy. Another regress was that women could not go into medicine in universities to be educated as doctors. Until the late nineteenth century, most universities had ban women from entering; they had seen women as unqualified to be treating someone. For example, in Paris in 1322, a woman called Jacoba was accused as working as a doctor without proper qualification even though many had said that she was very skilled and provided evidence. In spite of this, she was found guilty and fined ?60. The regress of the dislike from universities of women prevented an important, quicker change and progress in the education of women doctors.
There were not many factual explanations that the people produced for illnesses. There was very little change and much continuity in the middle ages for explanations of illness. Doctors generally accepted the Greek Hippocratic idea of the four humours and used methods that support this idea. For example, patients were frequently given laxatives to restore humour balance by emptying the bowels. Another prominent manner of balancing the humours was bloodletting. This involved the patients having their blood removed when they are perfectly healthy in order to keep the hours balanced. This use of deceptive methods prevented progress for a long period of time. This was also because the works of Galen, Hippocrates and other important medical ???ancient??™s??™ work was consider completely factual any arguments against them was denied and thought to be a mistake. This was a prevention of progress as the ideas of Hippocrates and Galen remained unchallenged for a long time. This was similarly the case in the Islamic world when the books of Hippocrates were translated into Arabic and doctors accepted this idea but as time progressed, individuals like Avenzoar and Ibn an Nafis began to challenge mistakes made in the work of the ancients and came up with alternative explanations and developed new ideas. In due course, the main explanation for illness in Europe was the belief that God and the Devil controlled disease. This was taught by the church and they said that illnesses were a punishment for sins. The church also taught that Saints could heal sick people through miracles. This picture shows the Saints Cosmas and Damian and Angels miraculously replacing a leg of a sick white man with the leg of a dead black man. The other main explanation of disease was the influence of astrology. Doctors, both European and Islamic believed that the body was influenced by the moon and the planets. Some thought that the planets and the moon were made up of the same for humours (earth, air, fire, water) that the body has and that the humours had to be in harmony for the body to operate. Charts and graphs were made to predict when the planets would be in certain positions as a method of diagnosis for illness. An example of this is the Zodiac chart which show when the position of planets is right for bloodletting. Some doctors thought that the position of the three big planets: Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars would have a great impact on health. For example, Guy de Chauliac, a French writer and the doctor of the Pope explained the Black Death by saying that the coming together of the three planets would be a sign of something wonderful of disastrous. This was a regressed change in the explanations of illness because it distracted doctors from finding and using new rational explanations. He also pointed out some accurate rational explanation like when he mentioned that bad digestion could cause illness. People also knew that there was a link between dirt/filth and healthiness although they did not know what that link was. Historians know this because during the Black Death, people cleared the streets of rubbish and waste. This was mainly a common sense explanation for illness.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the European Government was left weak and unorganised in the sense of public health systems. There were no proper health system for training doctors and key medical documents and books were lost or destroyed. Technology was also destroyed or very limited. It befell a place where medical customs regressed instead of progressed. But after about 400 years, the introduction of medical schools in universities and the appearance of a vast number of hospitals created many opportunities for the development of medicine. Schools provided students with the chance to listen to lectures from surgeons and train to become doctors. Also, towns looked to clear the streets of rubbish to prevent disease. Nevertheless, the Islamic region had a significantly more government impact on the development of medicine .The rulers of the Islamic Empire known as the Caliph were very interested in science. They supplied the support needed for medical advancement. A centre for the translation of ancient documents and books was constructed in Bagdad in 850AD during the reign of Caliph Harun-al-Rashid. This progress allowed medical knowledge to develop through reading ancient medical knowledge and also preserved hundreds of important documents while the others were being destroyed in European war. In around 931AD, students had to pass medical test to be allowed to practice to become a doctor. This progressed medical development as it meant that the doctors were properly qualified to treat people and that they have to knowledge in which to do so. The Caliph also introduced the method of treat the patients at hospitals instead of just caring for them unlike Christian hospitals where they only sought to care and not to cure. Soon later, these new hospitals became known as ???bimaristans??™ which welcomed both men and women, rich and poor. Doctors were always present at these hospitals and medical students watched and learned from the doctors as they did their work. This general attitude was from the Islamic holy book, the Koran which tells Muslims that caring for the sick and needy was an important part of their faith. This increased the public health of the Islamic empire and also provided more opportunities for medicine to develop through more students learning through experience rather than being lectured by surgeons about anatomy.
Because of the constant war throughout the middle ages, communication was much disrupted and was also very dangerous; therefore the spread of ideas was very gradual and slow. Throughout the Middle Ages, the Christian church was at war with Islam, so important mistakes found in ancient works (like Galen??™s mistake about the heart) and new medical ideas very slowly, mostly just reaching Western Europe. This was a regress in medical communication as doctors could not be updated on new medical methods and treatment and would make it harder to introduce new methods and treatment.
Since medical information was translated and preserved in the Islamic Empire, it allowed individuals to more easily develop new ideas. A Persian scientist called Al-Razi contributed significantly to the Islamic medical knowledge. He was known as Rhazes, an influential writer. Like Galen, he stressed the need to perform carful observation and recording infomation of the patient before anything was done. This enabled him to finally distinguish for the first time the difference between smallpox and measles. This was an important medical breakthrough in the history of medicine. When he was given the chance to build a hospital, he built it where meat decayed the least in his city because he believed in the importance of a healthy environment. Another important medical individual was Ibn Sina or Avicenna as he was known in Europe. He produced a million work medical textbook called ???The Cannon of medicine??™ which covered all available aspects and knowledge of medicine. He summarised the writing of Galen and Hippocrates together with their own Islamic writers and knowledge creating a very important book in the history of medicine. The book was very detailed and comprehensive, for example it in includes section about anorexia and obesity. This was progress to medical knowledge because he also included the medical use of drugs of which he was very knowledgeable with like many Islamic doctors. New drugs from the Islamic world included substances which are still used in medicine today, such as Camphor, Laudanum, Naphtha and Senna. Ibn Sina??™s medical encyclopaedia listed the medical properties of 760 different drugs. Later on another doctor called Ibn Nafis challenged the work of Galen and recognized that Galen was wrong when he said that there is a invisible passage that the blood from the right to the left ventricles moved. Ibn Nafis corrected him as he suggested that the blood might travel via the lungs. This was also a very important breakthrough in the history of medicine however his book was not popular enough to be read in Europe so Europe continued to accept Galen??™s mistake until the seventeenth century. This was a regressive continuity that delayed further medical development however overall the important individuals of the Islamic world contributed greatly to medical progress.In conclusion, I think that medicine did progress greatly in the Middle Ages even though many regresses happened and appeared as though there was not much change from Ancient times. I think this is because the fall of the Roman Empire caused most previous medical development to be lost, like the destruction of libraries and medical documents, which led to Europe having to recover from this fall. However, since this was not the cases in the Islamic world where the fall of Rome did not affect the Islamic Empire because medical documents had already been translated into Arabic by Government and so this allowed more chances for medical developments and left no easy way to regress from ancient times. For this reason, I think the Islamic Empire progressed more that the European empire as it had a better chance to progress and also had the interest to develop by the government(like Caliph Harun-al-Rashid) and their practice of their religious faith such as the teachings of the Koran. I think this also because the Islamic Education of Doctors was better as all the students were properly qualified and would have had experience through observing real doctors at work rather that listening to a surgeon point at a body, lecturing about anatomy. The government of the Islamic empire was better as the Caliphs, rulers of the Islamic empire, were interested in medicine and science which also led to more progression. The hospitals were generally better in terms of contribution of medical development as the Islamic hospitals cared and also treated patients of which the European hospitals lacked. Also there were more medically contributing individuals like Al Rhazes, Ibn Sina and Ibn Nafis in the Islamic Empire than the Europe in which no particular medical individuals flourished. Despite these changes in these medical factors, there was more continuity than change in the explanation of disease because people throughout the Middle Ages adopted the main ideas of the ancients like the theories of Galen and Hippocrates and the influence of the church still remained for a long period of time. For both empires, they did not know what rationally caused the Black Death. Therefore, I think that there was progress and change in the Islamic empire to a greater extent than the European Empire.